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The standard pronunciation of the English sounds is changed when registers, levels of formality and dialects are taken into account. Such a treatment has been the subject of various debates among both linguists and sociologists. CHAPTER 1. Word Definitions The word identified in a stretch of writing is called an orthographic word. It is studied under the domain of orthography which specifies the correct way of using a corresponding writing system to write a certain language. The word orthography is derived from the Greek words rotors (correct’) and gar;peeing (to write’).

The spelling of concrete words is based upon one or another of the graphical rules that exist in a language. In all European languages spelling Systems are based upon the use Of the alphabet. The English orthography is chiefly based on the historical principle, the majority of words preserving heir Old English or Middle English spelling, sometimes without modifications. The English language spelling system is highly irregular, but still regular to some degree, its mastery only requiring knowledge of the 26 letters of the alphabet.

The phonetic principle (one letter for one sound) is not expected to play any role at all in the English spelling. No letter represents one sound only; most letters are used to represent several sounds each and many combinations of letters are sometimes used to denote the same sounds. The morphological principle can be traced by and large on the basis of the allowing morphemes indicating: the plural of nouns; the 3rd person singular of the simple present tense; the past tense; the comparative and superlative degrees of short adjectives.

Except for these rules, the English orthographic word varies with typography and script. Variation is seen not only at the grammatical level, but at the lexical level, too. 13. The Grammatical Word Grammatical words are traditionally referred to as items which have the capacity to fit particular types of linguistic environment according to some patterns and to the kind of meaning associated with a particular class Of Rod. The canonical classes defined for the English language as parts of speech are: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, articles, verbs, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, interjections.

In what follows we consider it helpful to have a quick review of these, as they are at the core of obtaining conceptualization at the local and sentential levels. A. Noun. A word or word group that names a person, a place, a thing an attitude, an idea, a quality, a condition, an event, a process, a phenomenon etc. Examples: girl, garden, chair, boldness, truth, clairvoyance, solitude, oxidation, photosynthesis etc. The noun is at the core of nominally, a characteristic of the English written language. B. Pronoun. A word that functions as a substitute for a noun.

Examples: it, he, she, we, they, us, ourselves, you, this, them. The English language naturally bears upon the obligatory occurrence of pronouns with a significant referential capacity, whereas Romania is a PRO-drop language, suppressing the noun in subject position or as a marker of possession (e. G. The possessor and the possessed: Give me your hand / Adam man). C. Verb. A word or word group that expresses an activity, condition or state of being. The verb humanity function is referred to as predication and the main verb in a sentence is therefore called predicate. Examples: run, sleep, be, feel, believe, promise, write.

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