Marx was influenced by the dialectical method (way of thinking and the image of the world – dynamic rather than static) and historical orientation of Hegel, ND Idealism (only mind and psychological constructs exist, the ‘spirit of society) Key issues of Mar’s theory: A Materialist Social Ontology Hegelian idealism vs.. Marxian materialism Hegel treated the self-consciousness Of the mind as a substantive, really existing, disembodied entity and regarded individual minds as fragments of the one true mind (or Absolute Spirit). The real is rational”. Existing evils were attributed to the grip of unsound ideas – especially mystification and illusions produced by religion. Marx turned Hegel right side up. The key feature of societies was how they organized material production. Human emancipation required the material transformation of society rather than a mere change in consciousness. Historical Materialism is a distinctive method for analyzing transforming historical development. Class struggle vs.. Succession of modes of production 1.
History is the history’ of class struggle Communist Manifesto It consists of the class relations typify different historical epochs, these class relations are antagonistic to class struggle. The subordinate classes develop class consciousness and revolutionary movements to challenge the dominant class(sees). So, revolutions develop new modes of production and forms of social organization. 2. History is a succession of modes of production According to the Manifesto, there is the unfolding logic of a system rather than class struggle. The Critique of Capitalism Mar’s theory is about freedom.
Capitalism is a step towards freedom. It is also about constraint–about the circumstances and conditions that prevent working people from controlling the conditions of their own lives and work. Division of labor and private property produce alienation. It is bad influence of capitalism. Alienation – one of the key concepts of Mar’s theory – may be described as a condition in which men are dominated by forces of their own creation, which confront them as alien powers.