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AEC PUBLICATIONs 2007 handbook CurriCulum design and development in higher musiC eduCation jeremy Cox A free electronic version of this handbook is available through www. polifonia-tn. org. The Polifonia project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views of its authors and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which might be made of the information contained therein. handbook CurriCulum design and development in higher musiC eduCation jeremy Cox Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Foreword introduction some preliminary remarks on Curriculum design and development –whatisitandwhatisitfor? Curriculum design: the holistic approach 3. 1 Thepartsandthewhole 3. 2LearningOutcomes 3. 3FromLearningOutcomestoaholisticcurriculum the use of learning outcomes in curriculum design 4. 1 Fromtheorytopractice 4. 2Lessons,classes,LearningOutcomesandtherelationshipbetweenthem 4. 3Semesters,yearsandaprogressivecurriculum 4. 4LearningOutcomesandintermediatemilestones 4. 5LearningOutcomes,the‘typical’student,coreandoptionalunits the use of credit points in curriculum design 5. 1 Creditpoints,volumeandstandardunits 5. Thebenefitsofstandardisation 5. 3Creditpointsandlevels 5. 4Creditpoints,optionsandmanagingthecostofprovision reviewing and updating a designed curriculum – Curriculum development 6. 1 Design,approvalandreview 6. 2LearningOutcomesandreview 6. 3Ongoingdevelopmentthroughannualmonitoring 6. 4Continuousenhancement–thedevelopmentalphilosophy 6. 5Thedevelopmentalapproachtomanagingthecostofprovision 6. 6Curriculumreviewandexternalqualityassurance Conclusion 7. 1 Returningtofirstprinciples 7. 2Student-centeredness:traditionsandideals 7. 3Finalremarks 9 12 12 13 15 17 17 17 19 21 22 25 25 28 28 30 32 32 33 34 34 35 36 38 38 38 39 5 7

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Foreword ThisdocumenthasbeendevelopedintheframeworkoftheERASMUSThematicNetworkforMusic “Polifonia”1,thelargestEuropeanprojectonprofessionalmusictrainingtodate. Thisprojectinvolved 67organisationsinprofessionalmusictrainingandthemusicprofessionfrom32Europeancountries and30expertsin5connectedworkinggroupsinanintensive3-yearworkprogrammefromSeptember2004–October2007. Theproject,whichwascoordinatedjointlybytheMalmoAcademyofMusic –LundUniversityandtheAssociationEuropeennedesConservatoires,AcademiesdeMusiqueet Musikhochschulen (AEC),receivedsupportfromtheEuropeanUnionwithintheframeworkofthe ERASMUSProgramme.

Theaimsoftheprojectwere: 1. To study issues connected to the Bologna Declaration Process, such as the development of learningoutcomesfor1st(Bachelor),2nd(Master)and3rdcyclestudiesthroughthe“Tuning”2 methodology,theuseofcreditpointsystems,curriculumdevelopment,mobilityofstudentsand teachers,andqualityassuranceinthefieldofmusicinhighereducation. 2. To collect information on levels in music education other than the 1st (Bachelor) and the 2nd (Master)studycycles,inparticularpre-collegetrainingand3rdcycle(Doctorate/PhD)studiesin thefieldofmusic. 3.

Toexploreinternationaltrendsandchangesinthemusicprofessionandtheirimplicationsfor professionalmusictraining. Withtheaimtoparticipateinthediscussionstakingplaceinthehighermusiceducationsectorand intheframeworkoftheBolognaprocess,theAECformedwithin“Polifonia”agroupwiththefollowingexperts: • JeremyCox(Chair-RoyalCollegeofMusic,London) • HannuApajalahti(SibeliusAcademy,Helsinki) • EvertBisschopBoele(HanzehogeschoolGroningen) • CristinaBritodaCruz(EscolaSuperiordeMusicadeLisboa) • BrunoCarioti(ConservatorioStatalediMusica“AlfredoCasella”,L’Aquila) • GrzegorzKurzynski(K.

LipinskiAcademyofMusic,Wroclaw) • JorgLinowitzki(MusikhochschuleLubeck) • JacquesMoreau(CNSMDdeLyon) 1 Moreinformationabout‘Polifonia’canbefoundatwww. polifonia-tn. org. Formoreinformationaboutthe‘Tuning”methodologypleaseseehttp://www. tuning. unideusto. org/tuningeu/index. php? option =content&task=view&id=172&Itemid=205. 2 5

InordertoassisthighermusiceducationinstitutionswiththerequirementsproposedbytheBologna process,the“Polifonia”projectissuedaseriesofpublicationsthatcanbeusedbytheinstitutionsin thedevelopmentoftheirstudyprogrammes: • Severalpracticalhandbookson: – CurriculumDesignandDevelopmentinHigherMusicEducation – ImplementationandUseofCreditPointsinHigherMusicEducation – InternalQualityAssuranceinHigherMusicEducation • Adocumententitled“SummaryofTuningFindings–HigherMusicEducation”,whichcontainsthe AECLearningOutcomesforthe1st,2ndand3rdcycles,aswellasthe“Polifonia/DublinDescriptors”asmentionedinparagraph3. 2. ofthishandbook • Atrilingualwebsitecalled“BolognaandMusic”(www. bologna-and-music. org),whereallrelevantdocumentationinrelationtotheBolognaprocessseenfrom theperspectiveofhighermusic educationcanbefound. Inaddition,theAECproject“AccreditationinEuropeanProfessionalMusicTraining”3producedseveralimportantdocumentsaddressingexternalqualityassuranceandaccreditationinmusic. 3 Moreinformationaboutthisprojectcanbefoundatwww. bologna-and-music. org/accreditation. 6 1 IntroduCtIon 1. 1 Thishandbookisintendedasashortguideforthosewhoworkinconservatoiresandareinvolved withorganisingthetypesandpatternsofteachingthatgoonthere.

Itisnotmeanttobeanexhaustive manualforcurriculumdesignanddevelopment,althoughitdoesaimtogivesomepracticaladvice oncertainkeyissues. Itsprimaryfocusisuponthewaythat,inrecentyears,CurriculumDesignand Developmenthavebecomemoreconsciouslyandelaboratelyembeddedinthewaywerunthelearningandteachinginconservatoires. 1. 2 Becauseofthisfocus,thehandbookisdeliberatelyconcernedwithlinksbetweencurriculumdesignanddevelopmentandthreeofthekeyelementsthathavebeenmuchtalkedaboutinEuropean HigherEducationinrecentyears–Learning Outcomes, Credit PointsandQuality Assurance.

Allthree ofthesehavebeengivenadditionalimpetusbytheBolognaProcessandthishandbookhasbeen writtenwiththatbackgroundinmind. ItishopedthatitwillgivesomehelpandencouragementtoindividualsandteamsworkingonimplementingchangesintheirinstitutionsthatrelatetotheBologna Process. 1. 3 Ihavewrittenthishandbookassomeonewhobelievesthatawell-designedcur riculumreallycan helpconservatoirestudentstolearntobebettermusicians–inotherwords,thatcurriculumdesignisnotjustsomethingforthemoretraditionallyacademicsubjectstaughtinuniversities.

Ican appreciate,though,thatsomereadersmayfeelthatcurriculumdesignisyetanotherexampleof moderneducationalbureaucracyforcingustoputproceduresandprotocolsaroundsomethingthat we,inconservatoires,areusedtodoingquitefreelyandnaturally. Iamalsowellawarethat,however beautifullywemayeachofusdesign,balanceandintegratethecurriculuminourinstitution,ourkey teachers–thebusymusicianswhodividetheirtimebetweentheprofessionandtheir1-to-1teaching –probablyhavelittleinterestinaspectsofthecurriculumoutsidetheirspecificarea-andevenless inreadingcurriculumhandbooksandotherdocuments,insteadofjustgettingonwiththepractical realitiesofmusicmaking! . 4 Inmanyways,thechallengetocurriculumdesignersinconservatoiresastheyworktocreatecoursesanddocumentationinlinewiththeBolognaProcessisoneoftranslation–howtoconvertthe EuropeanHigherEducationjargonintotermsthatmusicianscanfeelreasonablycomfortablewith, andhowtogivetheformalcoherenceandclaritybelovedofeducationaliststotherich,butoften somewhatchaotic,patternoflearningandteachingactivitiesthattakeplacewithinthewallsofa conservatoire. Intheend,likeanytranslation,thisprocesswon’tentirelysatisfythenativespeakers ofeitherlanguage! 1. Oneofthemostencouragingsigns,though,isthattoday’sstudentsmostlyseemtohaverelativelylittledifficultyfindingtheirwayaroundnewer-stylecoursehandbooks,withtheirLearningOutcomes, CreditPoints,etc. Thisispartlybecausetheirearliereducationhasbeencarriedoutundersystems 7 thatarealsochanging,likethoseofhighereducation. Butmostly,Iliketothinkthatitisbecause theirmindsarestillyoungandflexible. Iwouldalsohopethat,thankstoalearningprocessthatis perhapsmorestudent-centredthanthatexperiencedbytheirteachers,theymayretainsomeoftheir currentflexibilityandabilitytotakeinthebiggerpicturewhenthey,inturn,becometheteachersof thenextgeneration.

Weoweittothemtotrytodesignthecurriculathatwillhelpthatprocessto comeabout. 8 2 someprelImInaryremarksonCurrICulumdesIgn anddevelopment–whatIsItandwhatIsItFor? 2. 1 The word “curriculum” is used to describe the course of study that is offered by an educational institutionandtakenbyitsstudents. Historically,curriculawithininstitutionshavetendedtoevolve relativelyinformallyandinapiece-by-pieceway. Thisisnottosaythatthereisnotextensivecommon ground, nationally and even internationally, across institutions teaching the same discipline.

Onthecontrary,eachacademicorvocationaldisciplinetendstohavedevelopeditscoreelements, generallytaughtineveryinstitutionofferingthediscipline. Forconservatoires,theforemostofthese coreelementsistheone-to-onePrincipalStudylesson,deliveredbyateacherwhoisusuallyalsoa distinguishedprofessionalperformerorcomposeroutsidetheconservatoire. Almostallconservatoiresoffermuchmorethanjustthislesson,however,andtherearemanycommonpatternstowhat theyofferinaddition–usuallygroupmusicalactivityofsomekind–chamber,orchestral,choral,etc; upportingtheoreticalstudy;perhapsasecondorrelatedinstrumentalstudy,oftensomekindof traininginthepedagogyofone’sinstrumentand,increasingly,somekindofpreparationforthechallengesoftheprofession. Collectively,theseelementsconstitutethecurriculum-recognisablefrom oneconservatoiretoanotherbut,initsspecifics,almostcertainlytheproductoftheuniquehistory andcircumstancesofeachinstitution. 2. 2 Partofthisuniquenessarisesbecausecurriculahaveatendencytogrowoftheirownaccord.

Where curriculaarerelativelymodest-andifresourcesarereasonablyabundantandnottoocloselymonitored-newelementscansimplybeaddedasandwhenaneedisidentified-orperhapswhena particular member of staff wishes to contribute an element that reflects a personal enthusiasm. Conservatoireshaveaparticularlyrichtraditionofofferingarangeofactivitiesthatarealmost“optionalextras”inthissense;infact,theymaynotbeconsideredpartoftheformal“curriculum”atall –thislattermayactuallybequitenarrowandnotatallflexible.

Themoreenergeticandenthusiastic astudent,themoreoftheseactivitiesheorshecanbenefitfrom,butthereisusuallynopenaltyattachedtonottakingthem. Crucially,theseactivitiesarenotthereforeseparatelyassessed;theyare simplygivenouttothosestudentssufficientlymotivatedtotakethem. 2. 3 Withincreasingaccountability,thereisacorrespondingpressuretoformaliseorcurtailtheseactivities,bringingthemwithinadocumentedandproperlyassessedcurriculumiftheyaretoberetained. Becauseofareluctancetolosetherichnesstheyrepresent,thishasledtomanycurriculareaching asaturationpoint.

Meanwhile,theacceleratedpaceofchangeinallwalksoflife,includingthemusic profession,meansthattherehasbeenanunprecedentedpressureinrecentyearstoaddnewelements. Andyetallthishastakenplaceacrossaperiodwhenconservatoires,likeallhighereducation institutions,haveincreasinglyhadtojustifytheircostsand,whereappropriate,todelivertheircurriculamoreeconomically-atthesametimeasneedi ngtodevelopframeworksofqualityassurance whichthemselvesaddtocosts. Allthishasmeantthatcurriculacannolongercontinuetoevolve inthewaydescribed.

Theyneedtobereviewedfromtoptobottom,lookingateachelementand 9 judgingitsvalue,aswellaswhetherthatvalueisconstantovertime,increasingordecreasing. Then, becausenoteverythingcanbeincluded,prioritieshavetobedecided–whattokeepin,whattotake out. Inshort,thecurriculumnowadaysneedstobedesigned. 2. 4 Goodcurriculumdesigncanhelpaninstitutiontogetthemostfromtheresourcesithasavailable;it canalsoleadtoacurriculumwhichiseasiertomodifyandupdatesubsequently,helpingtheongoing processofcurriculumdevelopment.

Ingeneralterms,aneffectivelydesignedcurriculumwilltendto havethefollowingfeatures: • Well-balanced:thevariouscomponentsareeachgiventheirdifferentweight,asappropriate,but noelementisgivenmorethanitsfairshare. • Full, but not overloaded:deliverablewithintheresourcesavailable-anover-fullcurriculumwill, inanycase,leadtostudentschoosingwhichelementstheywillattendandwhichtheywillmiss, sincetheycan’tattendeverything. Thewasteinsuchasituationisobvious. • Flexible:adaptabletothedifferentneedsofdifferentstudents;responsivetochangingpriorities andalerttolikelyfuturerequirementsoftheprofession. progressive:encouragingstudentstogrowanddevelopastheypassthroughtheprogramme, oftenbystartingwithastructuredandlargelycompulsorypatternofstudiesandmovingtoonein whichchoiceplaysagreaterpart. • student-centred:recognisingthat,foreachstudent,thecurriculumismorethansimplythepatternoflessonsandclassesthattheinstitutionoffers–itisthesumtotalofeverythingthestudent islearningandabsorbingduringhisorhertimeattheconservatoire. • Focussed on learning:selectingteachingmethodsandmethodsofassessmentonthebasisof howwelltheyencouragelearningandthendemonstratethatithasbeenachieved. . 5 Thishandbookdiscussesthewaysinwhichcertainprinciplesofcurriculumdesign,coupledtotools suchasLearningOutcomesandCreditPointSystems,canhelpinstitutionstodevelopcurriculathat fulfilthesecharacteristics. Itthengoesontoexaminehowacurriculumdesignedinthiswaycan bedevelopedovertime,whetherinresponsetochangingcircumstancesorsoastoincorporateimprovementssuggestedbytheexperienceofrunningit. 2. 6 Itshouldbesaidthatthecontentofthechaptersthatfollowisbasedupontheassumptionthatan institutionhasbroadcontroloverwhatitchoosestoteachandhowitchoosestodoso.

Ofcourse, somecountrieshavesystemswherethecurriculum,oramajorpartofit,isfixedatnationallevel; in other countries and systems, part of the mechanism of external quality assurance consists of settingagreedtemplates,sometimescalledSubject Benchmarks,thatdefinethemainareastobe coveredbycurriculaandthekindsofstandardsthatstudentsareexpectedtoachieveinrelationtoa particulartypeofqualification. Whilstanyoftheseexternalinfluencesmayfeelasthoughitisplacing limitationsuponaninstitution’sfreedomtocarryoutcurriculumdesign,theyaregenerallyintended topromotemanyofthesamecharacteristicsasthoselistedabove.

Therefore,eveninasituation wheresubstantialelementsofthecurriculumarepredeterminedbyexternalfo rces,theprinciples inthishandbookshouldstillbeofrelevance. 10 2. 7 Thisintroductionhasattemptedtosetoutsomeofthebackgroundtocurriculumdesignandwhyit hasbecomeaprocessthatneedstobemoreconsciouslyplannedandarticulatedthanpreviously. Thechapterthatfollowscontinuesthissomewhatphilosophicalapproach,suggestingawayofthinkingthat,inmyopinion,leadstomoreeffectivecurriculumdesign. ChaptersThreetoFivethendeal inmorepracticaltermswiththewaysinwhichtheprinciplesadvocatedintheearlierchaptersmay beputintopractice. 11 CurrICulumdesIgn:theholIstICapproaCh 3. 1 thepartsandthewhole 3. 1. 1 Itisnatural,andinevitable,thatweshoulddividecurriculaintodifferentcomponentparts. Students’ learninghastohaveastructure;thereisalimittohowlongstudents–andforthatmatterteachers –cancontinuedoingthesamething;varietyinthedailyandweeklyactivityishelpfulandfocussing inturnonvariousspecificareaswithinadisciplinehelpsthelessonslearnttobeunderstoodand assimilated. However,itisalwaysimportanttorememberthattheendresultofthelearningprocessshouldbeacompleteindividualwhousesalltheirskillsandaccumulatedexperienceflexibly, fluentlyandwithoutconsciouscompartmentalisation.

Soalthoughcurriculumdesignispartlyabout dividingupwhatistobelearnt,itmustalsobeverymuchconcernedwithputtingalltheelements togetherinacoherentmannerandwithawell-integratedendresult. Acurriculumdesignedwith thisinmindisontherighttracktofulfilthefirsttwofeatureslistedabove,namelythatitshouldbe well-balancedand full,but not overloaded. Moreover,byhavingregardtothekindofwholemusician whoshouldemergefromtheprogrammeoftraining,itwillalsotendnaturallytobestudent-centred andfocussed upon learning. Howflexibleandprogressiveitiswilltendtobemoreamatterofdetailed implementation,aswillbediscussedinlaterchapters. . 1. 2 Manyteachingsituationsreflecttheideathatlearningisnotrigidlycompartmentalised. Inmusic,the 1-to-1PrincipalStudylessonisaperfectexampleofthis. Duringthecourseofonelesson,astudent maybedoinganyorallofthefollowing-andprobablyotherthingstoo:honingtheirtechnicalskills; exploringnewrepertoire;receivingcontextualorvaluableanecdotalinformationaboutthatrepertoire;gainingwiderinsightsfromanexperiencedprofessionalmusician-evenbeinggivenvaluable tipsorcontactsforprofessionalnetworking. Somelessonsmayatfirstappeartobemorenarrowly focussedupononespecificskillbuttheboundariesarehardlyeverrigidlydrawn.

Forexample,an auraltrainingclass,aswellasenhancingthestudent’sauralskills,mayalmostincidentallyintroducehimorhertonewrepertoire,provideinsightsintomusicalformandstructureandofferopportunitiestoreinforceeffectivecommunicationandgroupinteraction. 3. 1. 3 Despitethefactthattheseexamplesshowhowfluidthevarioustypesoflearningtakingplaceina particularlessoncanbe,mostofthetimewedon’tthinkinthisway. WethinkofthePrincipalStudy lessonasonetypeoflearning,sittinginitsowncompartment,andtheauralclassasanother–and soonthroughallthetraditionaldivisionsofthecurriculum.

Thesedivisionshavecomeaboutfor goodreasons,ofcourse,buttheyarenottheonlywaythatthesubjectarea mighthavebeendivided andtheyshouldnotencouragesimilardivisionsofthoughtandexperiencetobebuiltinthemindsof studentsandteachers. Forexample,learningthroughhistoricalandanalyticalstudyaboutmusical styleanditschangesinrelationtosuccessiveperiodsanddifferentrepertoiresisnotmuchuseif, attheendofthelesson,thestudentpacksawaytheseideasalongwithhisorhernotesandgoeson toaninstrumentallessoninwhichtheyperformthepiecetheyhavepreparedthinkingonlyoftechniqueandtoneproduction. EspeciallywithacomposersuchasBach,whoisbotharepresentativeof 2 aparticularhistoricalstyleperiodandoneofthekeyfiguresinthegeneralmusicalcanon,thiskind ofdislocationbetweentypesoflearningcanbesurprisinglycommonandisalmostalwaysdamaging toastudent’sdevelopmentasathoughtfulandwell-roundedmusician. 3. 1. 4 Thisisthekeyreasonwhyitisimportantthatcurriculumdesignshouldstartfromtheholisticviewpoint. Thefirstconsiderationshouldbewhatkindofcomplete,integratedmusiciantheinstitutionis hopingtohelpdevelop. Thisoverallaimoraspirationmaybeginasasingle,all-encapsulatingsentencebutitwillprobablyquicklytaketheformofalistofattributesofsuchamusician.

Interestingly, inbuildingsuchalistaprocessofcompartmentalisationisbeginningtotakeplaceonceagain,but itisimportanttonotethatthisnewlistisalmostcertainlynotgoingtobedividedinthesameway asthetraditionaldivisionsofthecurriculum,althoughtheremaybesomeoverlapbetweenthetwo. ThelistisbasicallywhatwewouldcallasetofCompetenciesor,ifexpressedintermsofspecificand measurablethingsthateverysuccessfulstudentshouldbeabletodo,aseto flearning outcomes. 3. 2 learningoutcomes 3. 2. 1 Learning Outcomes are an increasingly common way of describing the objectives of a course or wholeprogramme.

Theyrepresentasubtle,butimportant,shiftinthewaythatwethinkabouteducation–fromwhatistaughttowhatislearned. Ofcourse,thereisacloseconnectionbetweenthese twoconceptsbuttheyarefarfromidentical. Ontheonehand,itisclearthatastudentmayeasilyend uplearning,andproperlyinternalising,lessthanthetotalofwhatheorshehasbeentaught;equally, though,thestudentmaybeexploringthingsforhim-orherself,learningwithandfromfellow-students,processingarangeofexperiences,bothinsideandoutsidetheformallearningenvironment, andtherebylearningquiteliterallymorethanisbeingtaught.

LearningOutcomesfocusuponthis secondviewofastudent’seducation. Inthissense,theyarethemselvesstudent-centredandthey encourageanapproachtoteachingthatissimilarlystudent-centred. 3. 2. 2 Atthesametime,LearningOutcomesdonotpassthewholeresponsibilityforlearningtothestudent. Theyareusuallywordedinsomethinglikethefollowingway:“Atthecompletionoftheirstudies,successfulstudentswillbeableto…”. Thisimpliesasharedresponsibility.

Theinstitutionwillprovidethe teaching,theresourcesandtheenvironmentwhichoughttoenableastudentwithappropriateinitial aptitudeandareasonablycommittedapproachtosucceedinmeetingtheseoutcomes;meanwhile, thestudent,tobesuccessful,willshowduecommitmentandmakeappropriateuseoftheteaching, resourcesandenvironmentalsupportprovidedasheorsheproceedsalongthepathoflearningto thepointofmeasurementthatcomesatthecompletionoftheirstudies. 3. 2. 3 LearningOutcomesdescribewhatthesuccessfulstudentshouldbeabletodoattheendoftheir studies. Morespecifically,theydescribewhat everysuccessfulstudentshouldbeabletodo.

Asa result,whattheydescribeisaminimumforeverysuccessfulstudent. Successmustthereforebe pitchedatarealistic“typical”level. FormoststudentstherewillbesomeLearningOutcomesthat theycomfortablyexceedbytheendoftheirstudies,aswellasothersthattheyonlyjustmanageto 13 reach. IfastudentfailstoreachthelevelofoneormoreoftheLearningOutcomesofaprogramme, thenstrictlyspeaking,heorsheshouldnotpasstheprogramme. Thisiswhyitisimportantthat LearningOutcomesarewordedsoastocapturewhatistheminimumlevelofachievementthata studentneedstoreachtobesuccessful. 3. 2. LearningOutcomesdescribewherestudentsshouldarriveattheendoftheirstudies,nothowthey shouldgetthere. Thisnotonlyacknowledgesthatthelearningmightinvolvemorethanwhatistaught formally,asseenabove,butitalsopotentiallyintroducesaflexibilityastohowlongaparticularstudentmighttakeinreachingthedestinationidentified. Differentstudentsprogressatdifferentspeeds and,especiallyinadisciplinelikemusic,differentstudentsmayarriveatthestartingpointofhigher educationwithverydifferentlevelsofpriorattainment. ThisfeatureofLearningOutcomesisuseful inthecontextofcreatingcomparabilitybetweenprogrammesthatmaybeofdifferentduration. . 2. 5 TheoriginalBolognaDeclarationexpressedaminimumnumberofECTScredits(andhencelearning time)thatshouldapplytoeachcycle,butdidnotlaydownamaximum–or,indeed,anideal-durationtobeusedbyallcountriesandallinstitutions. A saresult,systemswithboththreeandfour yearsforthefirstcycleandoneortwoyearsforthesecondcyclecanbefound. Often,institutionsare notfreetochoosewhichdurationsshouldapplyintheircase. Definingthesecyclesintermsofthe typicalLearningOutcomestobeachievedmeansthatinstitutionscanplantheircurriculasoasto meettheselevelsacrosstheperiodofstudyavailabletothem.

Ofcourse,thisdoesnotremoveallthe problemsassociatedwithhavingsupposedlyequivalentprogrammesthatlastadifferentnumbersof years,butitdoesatleastcreateanenvironmentwhereeveryoneisworkingtowardsbroadlysimilar goalsintermsoftheminimumthresholdofachievementexpectedofstudentsattheendofeach cycle. 3. 2. 6 ItwaswiththisinmindthattheAECWorkingGroupexaminingtheimplicationsoftheBolognaProcessforhighermusiceducationchosetoexpressitsrecommendationsintheformofaproposedset ofsharedLearningOutcomesforthefirstandsecondcycles4. TheLearningOutcomesarrivedat drewuponmodelsalreadyinexistenceinEuropeancountriesandinNorthAmerica.

Theysoughtto describeapatternoflearningsufficientlybroadtoberecognisedbyAECmemberinstitutionsfrom differentnationaltraditionsandofferingteachingdifferentspecialismswithinhighermusiceducation. TheAECLearningOutcomeshavebeenrefinedaspartoftheworkofthePolifoniaErasmus ThematicNetworkforMusic. Outcomesforthethirdcyclehavebeenaddedandthelanguageofthe LearningOutcomeshasbeencarefullymappedagainstframeworksanddocumentsthatarenow emergingtodescribehighereducationacrossEurope,mostnotablytheso-called“DublinDescriptors”5andtheproposedEuropeanQualificationsFramework(EQF)6.

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