Educating Special Students: Learning Disabilities and Communication Disorders Kimberly A Pitman GUCCI: SPEC-226 November 29, 2013 Learning Disabilities and Communication Disorders Chart Disorder Definition Causes Characteristics Teaching Strategies Placement Options Writing Disabilities Dysphasia A learning disability that effects writing that may involve visual-spatial and language processing difficulties (types, n. D. Scientists have found that learning disabilities are related to areas of the brain that deal with language and have used imaging studies to show that Sometimes, factors that affect a evolving fetus, such as alcohol or drug use, can lead to a learning disability. Poor nutrition and exposure to toxins such as lead in water or paint. Children who do not receive the support necessary to promote their intellectual development early may show signs of learning disabilities (what causes, n. D. ).
Illegible handwriting Trouble forming letters, Inconsistent spacing between letters and words, Inability to write or draw within margins, Saying words out loud while writing, Concentrating so hard on writing that comprehension is missed (types, n. D. ) Early Writers SE paper with raised lines Try different pens and pencils Practice writing letters in the air or sand Encourage proper grip, posture and paper positioning Young Students Allow use of print or cursive whatever is more comfortable Allow extra time for writing assignments Do not judge timed assignments on neatness and spelling Use large graph paper for math calculations (What is, n. . ) Least restrictive environment General education classroom (inclusion), Special classes (self-contained), Both general education and special classrooms, Special schools, Home instruction, Hospitals and institutions Virginians, n. D. ) Math Disabilities Discalced The inability to understand and remember math concepts, rules, formulas, basic computation skills and sequence of operations (types, n. . ) See Above Young Children Difficulty learning to count Trouble recognizing printed numbers poor memory for numbers Trouble classifying objects School-Age Children Trouble learning math facts Difficulty developing math problem solving skills No familiarity with math vocabulary Difficulty measuring things Avoiding games that require strategy (Types, n. D. ) Tutoring outside the classroom
Use large graph paper to keep numbers organized use different strategies to teach math facts instead of memorization Practice estimating as a way to begin solving math problems Introduce new math skills beginning with concrete examples Provide a quiet work place with few distractions (what is, n. D. ) Reading Disabilities Dyslexia The term dyslexia is used in some jurisdictions to describe a specific learning disability in reading, in other jurisdictions dyslexia is considered a type of reading disability (types, n. D. ). See Above Trouble recognizing basic words Letter reversals and omissions
Trouble decoding words Omitting small words while reading Trouble with comprehension, spelling, and writing (types, n. D Avoid alphabetical order Avoid teaching the most confusable pair of letters together Teach short vowel sounds first Start teaching letter sounds as soon as possible Teach students to blend letter sounds to decode words Teach C.V. words first and build up to CIVIC Teach affixes to help with decoding Repeated reading of the same text Use partner and choral reading For Comprehension Use concept maps, Venn diagrams and story mapping (what is, n. D. ) Least restrictive environment
Communication Disorders Some causes of communication disorders include hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, mental retardation, drug abuse, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, emotional or psychiatric disorders, and developmental disorders. Frequently, however, the cause is unknown (communication, n. D. ) Expressive Language Developmental expressive language disorder is a condition in which a child has lower than normal ability in vocabulary, producing complex sentences, and remembering words. (Types, n. D. ). The causes of this disorder are not ell understood.
Damage to the cerebrum of the brain and malnutrition may cause some cases. Genetic factors may also be involved (communication, n. D. ). Children with this disorder may have the normal language skills needed to understand verbal or written communication Below-average vocabulary skills Improper use of tenses (past, present, future) Problems making complex sentences Problems remembering words (types, n. D. ) The most appropriate treatment for this disorder is the treatment from the speech pathologist Teach an understanding of words and concepts through he use of actual objects and progress from the concrete to the abstract.
Use pictures or photographs to reinforce and review the vocabulary that has been taught. Give simple directions in sentences to provide students with experiences in understanding sentences Have students repeat what they have heard to check understanding. Consistently check understanding. (Strategies, n. D Phonological Problems with the articulation or production of language sounds, which persist beyond what is developmentally normal (language, n. D. ) Problems or changes in the structure or shape of the muscles and bones that are used to aka speech sounds.
These changes may include cleft palate and problems with the teeth. Damage to parts of the brain or the nerves that control how the muscles and other structures work to create speech (such as from cerebral palsy (communication, n. D. ) Problems with words that begin with two consonants Problems with words that have a certain sound, such as words with k, g, r, s (language, n. D. ) Speech therapy may be helpful for more severe symptoms or speech problems that do not get better. Therapy may help the child create the sound, for example by showing where to place the tongue or how to form he lips when making a sound t).
Talk about making mistakes and “fixing them” Model self-corrections Reinforce self-corrections use labeled praise Make modeling corrections in conversation (strategies, n. D. ) Least restrictive environment Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Getting their meaning or message across to others (expressive language disorder), or Understanding the message coming from others (receptive language disorder) (language, n. D. ) Some mixed language disorders are caused by a brain injury, and these are sometimes misdiagnosed as developmental disorders.
A language disorder ay also be caused by damage to the central nervous system, which is called aphasia (language, n. D. ). A hard time understanding what other people have said Problems following directions that are spoken to them Problems organizing their thoughts Have a hard time putting words together into sentences, or their sentences may be simple and short and the word order may be off Have difficulty finding the right words when talking, and often use placeholder words such as “urn” Have a vocabulary that is below the level of other children the same age Leave words out of sentences when talking
Use certain phrases over and over again, and repeat (echo) parts or all of questions Use tenses (past, present, future) improperly (Language, n. D. ) Teach an understanding of words and concepts through the use of actual objects and progress from the concrete to the abstract. Use pictures or photographs to reinforce and review the vocabulary that has been taught. Give simple directions in sentences to provide students with experiences in understanding sentences Have students repeat what they have heard to check understanding. Consistently check understanding. Eve specific learning intentions which should be provided for the class; check that the pupil is listening and encourage active listening; state the pupil’s name before giving an instruction or gain eye contact (if appropriate); use visual strategies and non-verbal cues to support what is being said; help the pupil to make links to previous knowledge and experiences emphasize key words with slight stress (strategies, n. D. ) Stuttering mostly unknown Studies suggest genetics play a role (stuttering, n. D. ) part-word repetition W-W-W-where are you going? Sound Prolongation SASS eve me a seat.
A series of interjections: The person expects to have difficulty joining words (stuttering, n. D. ) Early intervention is important Treatment is the best strategy and is provided by a speech pathologist (stuttering, n. D. ) Least restrictive environment Hospitals and institutions (Virginians, n. D Disorders Educating students with learning disabilities and/or communication disorders present a set of challenges that takes a collaborative effort of general education teachers, special education teachers, speech pathologists, administrators, parents and other educational professionals to facilitate the academic growth of students.
Knowing what these disabilities are, their causes, characteristics and teaching strategies help to aid the classroom and special education teachers in fulfilling the day to day educational needs of students with these disabilities. This essay will examine how the policies, procedures, and programs are implemented for the education of students with learning disabilities and/or communication disorders in the local school district and discuss an interview conducted with a school speech pathologist.
The school district that I used for this essay is the district of Portsmouth Public schools in Portsmouth, Virginia. The first step is to identify children with disabilities if they are not already identified. The IDEA includes the Child Find mandate: Child Find requires all school districts to identify, locate and evaluate all children with disabilities, regardless of the severity Of their disabilities (child, n. D. ).
This obligation to identify all children who may need special education services exists even if the school is not providing special education services to the child(child, n. D. ). Schools are required to locate, identify and evaluate all children with disabilities from birth through GE 21 (child, n. D. ). The Child Find mandate applies to all children who reside within a State, including children who attend private schools and public schools, highly mobile children, migrant children, homeless children, and children who are wards of the state. (20 LLC. S. C. (child, n. . ). Once the child has been found, the next step is a referral for initial evaluation: Referrals may be made by any source including school staff, a parent or parents, the Virginia DOE, any other state agency, other individuals, or a school-based team in accordance with Virginia Code VACANCY-81-ADD b. (34 CUFF 300 301 (b) (regulations, 2010). Once the referral is received, the special education administrator or other designed will refer the child to the school- based team to review and respond to the request under VACANCY-81-50 D 3 b (2) (regulations, 2010).
After the child has been referred the determination that a child is eligible for special education and related services shall be made by a group as designated by Virginia Code (regulations, 2010). Upon completion of the administration of assessments and other evaluation materials, a group of qualified professionals and the parent(s) of the child hall determine whether the child is, a child with a disability and the educational needs of the child.
If a determination is made that a child has a disability and requires special education and related services, an PIPE shall be developed in accordance with the requirements of VACANCY-81 -1 10. (34 CUFF 300. 306, 34 CUFF 300. 308) (regulations, 201 D). Responsibility of the local school district is to ensure that an PIPE is developed and implemented for each child with a disability served by that local school district, including a child placed in a private special education school by: (34 CUFF 300. 1 1 2) (regulation, 2010).
The local school district will ensure that an PIPE: Is in effect before special education and related services are provided to an eligible child, is developed within 30 calendar days of the date of the initial determination that the child needs special education and related services; is implemented as soon as possible following parental consent to the PIPE (regulations, 2010). Once this process is completed, the special education team and the general education teacher can collaborate on strategies to meet the student’s educational needs. This may include services provided by the speech pathologist.
In an interview with the speech pathologist, I asked what could be done by the classroom teacher and the instructional assistant (myself) to help reinforce what she does in therapy sessions. These are the suggestions she made: to be patient and understanding of the student’s disorder, to allow extra time to answer questions, when possible to have face to face conversations making eye contact, to make sure we call on those students when having class discussions, and Of course to not tolerate teasing by other students (D. Header, personal communication, November 25, 2013).