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DISCUSS MANAGEMENT AS A PHENOMONEN WITHIN PUBLIC MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA 1 Introduction What is management? Management in all business places and organizational activities are the facts of bringing people together to achieve wanted goals and outcomes. Management entails planning, staffing, leading and controlling an organization or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. The Australian standard explains record management as the discipline and organizational function of controlling records to meet needs of the business.

The iso record management system standard defines record management as the field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of creation, receipt, maintenance use and deposition of records. The 2 definitions give light to the use of records as significant sources of evidence and their role as the foundation of accountability and transparent governance in the community as well as in corporate organizations. What is public management? New public management is a management ideology used by governments since the 1980s to update the public sector.

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New public management is an extensive and very intricate term used to describe the wave of public sector reforms throughout the world since the 1980s. The main hypothesis in the NPM reform wave is that more market orientation in the public sector will lead to greater cost efficiency for governments, without having negative side effects on other objectives and considerations. African governments in general and the east and southern African regions in particular, face major challenges with regard to the management of records and achieves in general and e- records in particular.

Poor records management practices in particular with regard to e-records insufficient skills and awareness about of sound records management. 2 importance of management A manager is a person who has been allocated to a leading position and who has devoted themselves to that task to take the lead in the implementation of specific instructions by focusing on the employees under their power, they have to find out how the employees are motivated to strive and deciding how to perform tasks appropriately.

Management may be considered one of the most imperative human activities because it is the mission of all managers at all levels in all enterprises and institutions. The principles of management are applied by all managers in the performance of their duties to go create situations in which people can work together to achieve stated goals. 3 various types of management theories Behavior orientated phase – this school is basically made of investigators from psychology and sociology. This school is focused at enabling management to comprehend human behavior in order to be competent of modifying it for efficiency in the organization.

Scientific management phase – this phase emphasizes on the perfection of productivity. This phase emphasized the improvement of productivity activities or movement and time in the work place was measured. In this phase the worker is regarded as a mere extension of a machine in the means of production. 4 training and development Training is the extension of knowledge for a specific reason if filling a given position, and also to effectively perform the work involved. Although training may be regarded as formal or informal, it must be scientifically founded and must be presented in an orderly approach.

Training and education conclude in development. Therefore development is the progress of an individual after training, and it depends on the individual alone. 5 downsizing This involves reducing the size of the public sector to create a more efficient and effective public service. Basically downsizing was supposed to cut down the number of staff employed in activities which had become outdated and also to make provisions for an increase of growth in high priority areas. Downsizing came about from an agreement between the state and its unions.

This linked the proper compensation of the workers to achieve an adequate sized public service. However this is not very successful and was recognized by the government. 6 financial public sector reforms Financial reform is the centre of NPM reforms. Part of these reforms is in the budget, as countries move away from the line item budgeting towards program budgeting. This includes a shift away from comprehensive financial systems and compliance management towards giving managers a more financial discretion.

It gives managers an increased control over budgets for which they are held responsible. It commonly goes with setting explicit targets for decentralized units. 7 regulators This is policy act procedures and standards. The y all have outcome of productive and effective products. 8 conclusion Public management can be managed smoothly if the tasks above are implemented and followed out correctly. Public management is a vast and in depth topic which entails basic but important information. CONTENTS

Introduction Importance of management Various types of management theories Training and development Downsizing Financial public sector reforms Regulators Conclusion Bibliography Bibliography Dfp du toit & G Van Waldt 2008 managing for excellence in the public sector second edition Juta Professor A Larbi public sector reform and crisis ridden states Stephen Mutulu Justus M Wamukaya public sector information management in the east and southern Africa international journal of information management.

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