A crisp diminution in birthrate together with lifting life anticipations, have produced a quickly aging population in both developed and developing states. Thailand has become a state with an aging society due to successful household planning and betterments in medical engineering and in the efficiency of medical intervention. During the past three decennaries, the entire birthrate rate ( TFR ) declined from 4.9 in 1970-1975 to 1.9 in 2000-2005. The mean Thai life anticipation rose from 59 old ages in 1964 to 74 old ages in 2009 ( Institute for Population and Social Research, 2009 ) in an epoch of economic and societal development.
Couples have quickly declined in birthrate over the past decennaries which has affected the population construction in Thailand. The old age population has continuously risen from 4.6 % in 1960 to 11.5 % in 2009 while the proportion of kids every bit good as the working-age population has decreased ( National Statistical Office ( NSO ), 2007 ). The population of those aged 60 and over is predicted to treble from 7 % in 1987 to 21 % in 2025, therefore showing Thailand with serious challenges associated with an aging population ( Vapattanawong and Prasartkul, 2006 ).
Thailand is one of the most quickly aging populations in Asia. It is besides
aging much faster than many developed states. For illustration, while it took England
and Wales 107 old ages for the proportion of older people ( aged 60 and over ) to duplicate
from 7 % to 14 %, and France over a period of 115 old ages, it will take Thailand merely 30
old ages to accomplish the same addition ( Jitapunkul and Bunnag, 1997 ). Such rapid aging in
Thai society will hold major socioeconomic effects, necessitating seasonably and well-
planned policies to suit the changing age construction.
These alterations result in troubles for older individuals owing to changes of the dependence ratio, which refers to economic dependence among kids, older people, and working age people, viz., the dependence ratio of kids has decreased while that of older people has increased and the on the job age people bear more load of back uping the aged. This state of affairs has led to a lessening in the possible support ratio, which is the ratio of working age people aged 15-59 old ages per individual aged 60 old ages and over, from 11.3 in 1960 to 6.5 in 2005 and it is likely to be 2.4 in 2035 ( Vapattanawong and Prasartkul, 2006 ). Table 1.1 shows that the dependence ratio for older individuals has tended to increase. The higher proportion of aging has led to the higher old-age dependence ratio of Thailand from 9.6 per 100 in 1975 to an expected 22.1 per 100 in 2015, which is likely to farther addition to about 31.2 per 100 in 2025.
Table 1.1: Dependence ratios ( % )
Beginning: United Nations ( 2007 )
The higher proportion of aging population is besides a great challenge for the economic system owing to common working disablements and worsening wellness. With older age, the prevalence of disablement, infirmity, and chronic diseases ( Alzheimer ‘s disease, malignant neoplastic disease, and cardiovascular diseases, etcetera ) can happen and take to the economic concerns of aging ( Ministry of public wellness, 2007 ).
Older age has caused alterations and diminution in both physical and psychological facets, including economic position. Older individuals normally encounter with assorted unwellnesss and diseases, such as arthritis, high blood pressure, and diabetes. The survey conducted by the Health Research System Institute ( 2004 ) showed that aged individuals in Thailand have been progressively afflicted by chronic conditions and are confronting more and more disablements. Besides, it was found that 74.3 per centum of the Thai aged had at least one chronic unwellness and that most of them suffered from many chronic unwellnesss at the same time ( Porrapakkam and Punyaratabandhu, 2006 ). The Government of Thailand will hold a heavier load in supplying appropriate wellness services for older people, particularly sing their unwellnesss. These wellness conditions of older individuals non merely impact a household ‘s fiscal resources, but besides the national economic system.
Social and economic alterations consequence the Thai people ‘s traditional forms of life, both business and life agreements. Transformed from an agribusiness sector to a non-agriculture sector and from an drawn-out household to a atomic household, the bulk of the Thai working-age population must travel to urban countries for work chances, peculiarly peripheral countries around Bangkok. The consequence is that the traditional Thai household construction has progressively gravitated toward the atomic household, asking that the populating agreements of older people adapt in tandem with their life entirely ( Cowgill, 1972 ; Thanakwang and Soonthorndhada, 2007 ). Studies on the life agreements of the aged people in Thailand found most older individuals still live in households composed of more than two members.
However, the figure of older people populating without kids and populating entirely has increased due to the lessening in the figure of kids per household and the addition in younger people migrating to metropoliss to happen work chances, peculiarly adult females come ining the formal work force ( Knodel, et al., 2005 ). These consequence in the insufficiency of people in caring for older individuals when they need assistance. This survey is similar to Soonthorndhada ( 2009 ) who found that the aged life with the same coevals has decreased a small, except the aged life entirely and populating with a partner that had the higher proportion. Visitation rates of kids from the 2007 Survey of Older Persons in Thailand showed that merely 55 % of older individuals were visited by their out-migrant kids due to the increasing economic load in the metropolis. Furthermore, this survey found that the chief cause of the lessening in relationships within household between progenies was economic jobs and the aged are less likely to have fiscal support.
These state of affairss affect the economic dependence of the aged. Soonthorndhada ( 2009 ) to boot revealed that the most aged standard income from kids and the 2nd standard income came from working both in 2002 and 2007 although in 2007 the proportion of working did non differ from having income from kids. Furthermore, in 2007 aged got income in the highest proportion as allowances from authorities. However, this survey viewed that aged still had deficient income. These resulted in enduring economic facets for aged who have older age and are confronting wellness jobs. Therefore, the aged demand to acquire support from others in order to populate subsequently.
Economic position, societal support and the wellness position of the aged are the of import factors doing economic troubles among the aged. Poverty among older individuals is a planetary job in both developed and developing states that affects the economic insecurity of seniors ( Chayovan, 2005 ; Glasgow, 1993 ). The hapless wellness position of the aged, such as chronic unwellnesss, disablements, and dependence, are of import factors impacting the economic wellbeing of the aged. Many population subgroups still face economic insecurity, peculiarly cultural minorities, handicapped people, and aged ( United Nations Country Team in Thailand, 2005 ).
Previous surveies on economic security among older individuals demonstrated clear links between poorness and gender, age, instruction, wellness position, country of abode, and populating agreement ( Glasgow, 1993 ; McLaughlin and Holden, 1993 ; Lee, 1998 ; McLaughlin and Jensen, 2000 ). Research conducted in the United States found that the features of American seniors such as, adult females, cultural minorities, illiteracy, disablement, widows, populating entirely, and those unrecorded in rural countries faced with economic jobs besides ( Angel and Angel, 1998 ; Smeeding and Weaver, 2002 ).
In Thailand, the “ economic security ” of the aged is an of import job. Economic security showed that the agencies of support is the necessity of people to guarantee their beginnings of support to last. The old surveies considered economic security as lone income. The mean one-year income of older individuals was about 29,000 tical ( US $ 1= about 30 tical ) and the average one-year income was approximately 10,000 tical. One tierce of older individuals had an mean one-year income less than 5,000 tical or less than the average income of the Thai aged population in general and good below the poorness line ( Chayovan, 2005 ). Furthermore, Knodel and Chayovan ( 2008 ) found that 13 % and 19 % of male and female elderly have no income and economic trouble in their day-to-day lives. Most hapless aged are females, populating in rural countries, and nonreader. In add-on, most destitute aged individuals did non hold cognition and did non be after for their older age.
The proportion of the on the job age population is likely to diminish and the old age population is likely to increase impacting the single economic system and the national economic system, besides. The economic system is the basic variable linked to day-to-day life of human existences. Economic position shows the quality of life in footings of wellness attention, nutrient, apparels, and other outgos for day-to-day life. Therefore, economic security of the aged is going the of import issue because economic security indicates the well-being and ability for day-to-day life, including entree to wellness attention and lodging, which offers the thought of avoiding the hazard of economic uncertainness and carry throughing basic human demands.
Up to now, few surveies about economic security have been done. Some are non clear about the sphere of economic security what they precisely are. Income has been considered as an index of the economic system ( Keawthep, 1980 ; Chayovan, 2005 ; and Thanakwang and Soonthorndhada, 2007 ). Furthermore, some researches have looked at assets ( Knodel, 2007 ), or employment security ( Bengtson et al, 1977 ) as economic security. Several surveies employed sum of income, sufficient income, nest eggs, or outgo of day-to-day life as steps of economic security, but they were measured one variable at a clip. Economic security should be measured by multi-dimensions because the economic system consists of pecuniary and non pecuniary factors.
This survey has considered beginnings of income support which lead to economic security. Due to the longer life anticipation of individuals, self fiscal support can non be plenty as an lone beginning of income. The older age, have worsening wellness, and they can non normally work. The beginning of income among the Thai aged may come from authorities fiscal support, and household fiscal support.
Self fiscal support refers to an older individual ‘s on the job conditions, income from working, sum of income, income from nest eggs or involvement collected during the old period of life, and assets ( lodging ). Thailand is as an agricultural state, although soon the state has developed its industries more than antecedently. The work of older individuals was classified as in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. The tendency of employed older individuals is likely to increase, where most of them still work in the agricultural sector at their retirement age ( Siriphanich et al., 2008 ). Presently, most elderly do their ain concern / self-employment with no other employees, or help in their household concern without rewards / wages. With regard of income from working, the mean monthly income of the older individuals was 5,292 Baht in 2002 and increased to 6,246 Baht in 2007.
In 2007 it was shown that the aged in municipal countries had an sum of income a month three times more than the aged in non municipal countries and the aged in Bangkok had the highest income a month ( National Statistical Office ( NSO ), 2002 and 2007 ). The old individuals still do non pay much attending to salvaging. The economy at a low degree will impact on life security of the Thai people and the national economic stableness. Therefore, in the hereafter it will be necessary to run for people ‘s decrease of their ingestion outgo and run for them to salvage more. Self fiscal support among the Thai aged is going their chief beginning of income ( NSO, 2009 ; The Foundation of Thai Gerontology Research and Development Institute ( TGRI ), 2007 ).
The ripening of old people is going the national docket in all parts, similarly Thailand. The Tai authorities realizes this state of affairs of Thai aged by supplying a societal security fund to back up them. Over 5.1 million aged confronting economic troubles have signed up for the aid so far. Each will have a monthly grant of 500 THB provided by the Thai authorities ( Thaipvd.com 2009 ). They were non antecedently civil retainers. While the aged who have been civil retainers of a Thai authorities office, they receive
the old-age pension benefit after retirement. The pension programme is the chief beginning of formal support. Although they will have monthly income merely half of the old income before retirement, it is income stableness. However, for the sum of formal support the authorities does non hold equal societal security systems in topographic point. Apart from the issue of formal programmes, there is the issue of passing household attention of the older individuals. The authorities operates to heighten the familial support of older parents.
Due to Thai tradition and civilization, kids have to bear the load of back uping their parents. Thais depends on their households for economic support when they become old. The household refers to members of the household, such as partner, kids, others ( parents, relations, etc. ). Therefore, intergenerational transportations of stuff goods are besides more likely to flux upwards from kids to parents. Family fiscal support is an of import beginning of income to back up older members. However, economic fluctuation has impacted the immature coevals ; they move to another topographic point and ignore lovingness for their parents. Furthermore, twosomes will make up one’s mind non to hold kids or to hold fewer kids, unless policies are non established that acknowledge the load on middle-aged kids to back up two coevalss – their older parents and their ain kids. This state of affairs above of the Thai aged is confronting economic insecurity if they hope to depend merely upon their kids.
Besides this survey is interested in each beginning of economic support, such as self support, authorities support, and household support. It has studied all variables of each beginning of income as economic security of the Thai aged. The construct of building an index is the chief subject of this survey. From several literature reappraisals, I employed composite index and factor analysis with chief component analysis as a method of mensurating an economic security index.
Furthermore, there is no survey sing the difference of alterations in economic security between 2002 and 2007, including determiners on the economic security of the Thai elderly in 2002 and 2007. However, with the construct of economic security altering in Thailand over the old ages, it becomes important to prove these phenomena with the economic security of the aged.
Therefore, the intents of this survey are 1 ) to look into the degree of economic security of the Thai aged by building the economic security index in 2002 and 2007, 2 ) to compare the differences of economic security degrees in 2002 and 2007 by socio-demographic factors and wellness factors, and 3 ) to analyze the determiners of economic security among the Thai elderly in 2002 and 2007.
1.2 Research Questions
What sort of method and spheres of indexs should be used to build an
economic security index of the Thai aged?
What are the differences in the economic security degree of Thai aged in
2002 and 2007?
What are the factors impacting the economic security of the Thai aged?
1. To look into the degree of economic security of the Thai aged by
building the economic security index in 2002 and 2007.
2. To compare the difference of economic security degrees in 2002 and
2007 by socio-demographic factors and wellness factors.
3. To analyze the determiners of economic security among the Thai aged
in 2002 and 2007.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This survey has focused on the economic security the single degree. The first aim in this survey concentrates on seeking for economic security indexs to build an economic security index as a measuring of economic security of the Thai aged. The consequences of this portion explained economic security index in the Thai context based on the bing variables utilizing informations which was available both in the 2002 Survey of Older Persons in Thailand and in the 2007 Survey of Older Persons in Thailand.
1.5 Restrictions of the survey
1. The 2007 Survey of older individuals in Thailand did non offer the assorted variables to bespeak economic security indexs and besides, the grouping of sum of income and sum of salvaging variables by normal scale measuring is the obstruction of this survey. The study could supply more variables to measure economic security indexs of the aged and showed several variables should be uninterrupted variables.
2. Owing to alterations in the allowance policy planning for the aged in 2007-2009, it has been adapted to cover the whole aged. While the survey employed informations of the 2002 and the 2007 in the Survey of Older Persons in Thailand, they are are likely to out day of the month and non conform to the current state of affairs.
1.6 Operational Definitions
Owing to analyzing several analyses and variables, operational definitions are presented here so as to ease clear and unambiguous apprehensions.
Aged refers to older individuals who frequently face biological and societal alterations ( Mason 1992 ). In each state or society, the age when a individual is considered aged is defined otherwise, depending on the mean on the job age or the physical, societal, economic and cultural position of each society. In the Thai society, old age begins at 60 which is the age of retirement in the civil service and most urban businesss. Therefore, in this survey we consider individuals aged 60 and over as aged.
Economic security refers to sufficient income to pay for outgo, holding regular employment, entree to salvage / insurance, ability to pay debt, including entree to wellness attention and lodging, which offers the thought of avoiding the hazard of economic uncertainness and fulfilment of basic human demands.
Economic Security Index ( ESI ) refers to the index constructed to mensurate economic security, which consists of support from three beginnings 1 ) ego support ( which consists of work, working conditions, income, salvaging, and house ownership ), 2 ) authorities support ( which consists of pension, allowance ), and 3 ) household support ( which consists of partner, kids, others ), both in 2002 and in 2007. The ESI was constructed by utilizing a composite Index.
Health factors refer to the physical wellness position of older individuals in footings of self-reported wellness position, illness, restriction of activities of day-to-day life ( ADL ), and restriction of functional ability, and chronic diseases.
1.7 Expected Results
1.7.1 To go the cardinal information for any organisation interested in the survey of the relationship between factors and economic security.
1.7.2 The consequences of this research provide the new cognition in several facets of the aged refering day-to-day life, including policies that allow older individuals to keep their independency which are of import.
1.7.3 The dimensions of economic security, indexs, index and methods for look intoing the economic security index provide the constructs and procedures for other organisations and authoritiess to suitably make the older individual ‘s policies, appropriately.