Heritage industry are a new attack for Malayan authorities to set up in several sectors which are related to the demands of thought development in art composing through creativeness, like trade, batek, songket, wood curving, furniture, music, and movie. Most of originative enterprisers in a Malayan heritage industry are classs under little and average graduated table industry. As the heritage industry grows from the bring forthing sector into more composites in industrialisation, entrepreneurship will pull more attending to the demand for stressing on originative industry. Therefore, entrepreneurship becomes as a chief factor to develop personality traits among originative enterprisers in their concern committedness, in term of self-development based committedness and net income based committedness. Personality traits besides become both stylish and popular as an account of entrepreneurial features and motive toward the concern committedness in heritage industry.
Previously, heritage industry become as a chief sector in United land which is contributed to the gross domestic merchandise in an economic system, where the turning rate is faster than any other economic sector in a twelvemonth of 1997 to 2003 ( Einarsson, 2002 ) . In fact, it had expanded by an norm of 6 per centum per annum compared over the period of clip that merely 2 per centum per annum ( Carey, Naudin, 2006 ) . Nowadays, Malaysia besides gives a positive feedback toward the development of heritage industry every bit good as in UK ( Hatta Azad Khan, 2006 ) . Therefore, entrepreneurial features play an of import function to develop the committedness among originative enterprisers. The intent of this survey is to place the relationship of entrepreneurial characteristic significantly affected to the committedness among originative enterprisers in Terengganu.
Malayan Heritage Industry
The successful entry of the heritage entrepreneurs into planetary markets for consumer goods such as music, fabric, furniture and trade in early 2000s clearly evidenced that Terengganu heritage enterprisers could no longer depend on local market as the primary beginning of economic growing. The sector become possible for growing and its ability to enable invention and improved productiveness across other sectors within the economic system. The heritage industry presently extremely contributes to gross domestic merchandises ( GDP ) , and besides turning at a faster rate in economic system as a whole. In fact, heritage industry is identified as one of the keys to transform the Malayan economic system.
Therefore, originative enterprisers in heritage industry in Terengganu or even in Malaysia is considered as industry in passage to travel from societal activity into net income oriented, besides highlighted an necessity of entrepreneurship accomplishment in heritage industry. Although legion descriptive surveies and some valuable empirical research have been undertaken in this respect, but there is a warrant that are less in guidelines derived from the research which are contribute to the development of heritage industry in Malaysia.
One of the most exciting new developments towards the publicity and development of entrepreneurial-oriented competences in heritage industry is the publication of a several policies which are covering with the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage, and Ministry of Entrepreneurial Development and Cooperation. A cardinal issue accent by Ministries is the proper development of accomplishments, as required by the market topographic point, with specific mention to entrepreneurial accomplishments and concern accomplishments.
Perbadanan Kemajuan Kraftangan Malaysia
Perbadanan Kemajuan Kraftangan Malaysia ( Malayan Crafts Development Agency ) besides known as “ Kraftangan Malaysia ” is an bureau under Kementerian Perpaduan, Kebudayaan, Kesenian dan Warisan ( Ministry of Unity, Culture and Heritage ) has a mission to do Malaysia a leader in the heritage industry ( Kraftangan Malaysia, 2008 ) . It plays a critical and of import function in the publicity of traditional accomplishment and workmanship ; development of the handcraft industry ; helping craftsmen towards the usage of modern methods of production ; and promotes the selling and export of handcraft merchandises. A assortment of plan has been introduced by Kraftangan Malaysia to develop and advance the local originative merchandise into international market.
Kraftangan Malaysia has nine divisions to pull off all the activities in the Malayan heritage industry. However, merely three divisions at Kraftangan Malaysia are responsible for the development of enterprisers in the heritage industry, which includes ; the handcraft industry development division, the market and promotional development division and the research and development division. The handcraft industry development division is responsible in supplying the installations, engineering, and developing plan to develop the proficient expertness of the local originative enterprisers.
The market and promotional development division is given the undertaking to pull off assorted selling and publicity plans to promote more originative enterprisers to take part in domestic or international promotional activities, such as in-store publicity, theme publicity or trade exhibition. The intent of this planning is to present local trade bring forthing into foreign market, to increase the degree of trade bring forthing in term of originative and advanced, and besides acquire to cognize the consumer behaviours which are contribute to the market demand.
Furthermore, the research and development section at Kraftangan Malaysia is really concern on the merchandise development in the context of merchandise design, packaging, trade stock list and interior design ; technological survey in productiveness and quality ; placing the replacement stuff in trade production and to bring forth high quality trade merchandises.
Creative Entrepreneurs in the Terengganu Heritage Industry
Terengganu is good known for its strength and wealths in traditional civilization heritage in Malaysia. Therefore, Terengganu province authorities has set their ain policy planning sing civilization heritage toward the touristry industry based on their strengths and advantages in an industry. This policy will do the province authorities to expect planetary market and besides to better their public presentation in run intoing the demand of planetary criterion. However, the figure of originative enterprisers in Terengganu ‘s heritage industry who understands and committed to their concern and authorities policies remains unknown.
Furthermore, in order to assist these enterprisers, the Terengganu State Government took the duty to guarantee that the positive development of heritage industry in Terengganu becomes a world to back up the local touristry industry ( Penggalakan Pelancongan Negeri Terengganu, 2004 ) . Hatta Azad Khan ( 2006 ) suggested three chief constituents have to foreground to develop originative enterpriser in heritage industry in Malaysia, which include the cognition of entrepreneurship, creativeness and innovativeness in art and engineering consciousness. These three constituents are important in developing the character of entrepreneurship particularly for those who are involved in the heritage and originative industry in Terengganu.
The most comprehensive surveies in a construct of entrepreneurship are describe the significance of single enterprisers toward the face of hazard and uncertainness for the intent of accomplishing net income and growing by placing chances with its surrounding by a concern challenging ( Zimmerer et al, 2005 ) . In surveies the construct of entrepreneurship, it besides possible to know apart factors that influence entrepreneurial features, these influence by single factor, societal factor, and environmental factors ( Gurol & A ; Atsan, 2006 ) . Koh ( 1996 ) besides agree with Gurol & A ; Atsan ( 2006 ) where at that place highlighted that single factors are widely known as the trait theoretical account focal point on personality features of enterprisers.
Nowadays, many factors have been proposed to analyze the characteristic often exhibited the construct of entrepreneurship. Harmonizing to Gurol & A ; Atsan ( 2006 ) , six personality feature are used to gestate the entrepreneurship, there are ; demand for accomplishment, venue of control, hazard taking leaning, tolerance for ambiguity, innovativeness, and self assurance, every bit good as highlighted in independent variables in this survey. Meanwhile, Shane, Locke and Collins ( 2003 ) identified several factors of human motives that influence the entrepreneurial procedure ; there are demand for accomplishment, hazard pickings, tolerance for ambiguity, and venue of control, self efficaciousness, and end scene.
McKenna ( 2005 ) suggested that most little enterprisers in Singapore are involved in the direction of their ain concern. Harmonizing to him, the development and growing of little concerns is linked to the manner enterprisers managed their concern and their apprehension of the grade of committedness such enterprisers felt towards their organisation.
Previous survey has looked into the theory of committedness from different angles of concern direction, such as ; an application of committedness in a relationship selling ( Young et Al, 1995 ) ; a strict analysis of the aspects of work committedness ( Carmeli et al, 2006 ) ; the nature of managerial committedness to strategic alteration ( Lamsa et al, 2000 ) ; an employee committedness in organisational policies ( Foote, 2005 ) ; and organisational committedness in a little endeavor ( McKenna, 2005 ) . Hence, entrepreneurial features become of import to develop committedness in a concern.
Government besides becomes an of import factor to build the entrepreneurial features among originative enterprisers toward their committedness in a concern. In fact, authorities enterprise is invariably seen as an effectual manner of supplying enterprisers in little and average endeavors with the supportive of entrepreneurial development plan and fiscal assistance in order to develop and turn. Harmonizing to Ab. Aziz Yusof ( 2009 ) , authorities enterprise plays an of import function in helping enterprisers who plan to get down a concern or those who already involved in a concern.
This inaugural includes helper in countries such as ; policies, instruction, preparation, research, fiscal, substructure, and audience. The research workers argue that authorities enterprises to develop entrepreneurial personality will extremely lend to entrepreneurs ‘ concern committedness in the context of networking, ready to vie, an effectual fiscal direction, direction accomplishment, and entrepreneurial potency ( Zimmerer et al, 2005 ) .
Hypothesis and Theoretical Framework
The first aim of this survey is to find which of the five entrepreneurial feature will significantly impact their committedness. Based on the treatment of the literature, the first research hypothesis is framed as follows ;
H1: There is a significance and positive relationship between entrepreneurial features and committedness.
This paper besides investigates the function of authorities enterprise as a supportive action to the entrepreneurial features in originative industry toward their concern committedness. Therefore, the 2nd hypothesis is framed as follows ;
H2: There is significance alteration between entrepreneurial features and committedness when there is significance addition in authorities enterprise.
As this paper focal point on the probe of societal phenomenon or behavior among originative enterprisers in heritage industry, a descriptive research become as an attack to supply inside informations about state of affairs and societal relationship. Through a descriptive research, a study probe was efforts to depict the perceptual experience of respondents toward their entrepreneurial features which have associated with the concern committedness.
This paper focuses on the originative enterprisers at Perbadanan Kemajuan Kraftangan Malaysia, Terengganu. Harmonizing to the statistic green goods by Kraftangan Malaysia ( 2008 ) , 309 enterprisers from the whole of Terengganu are registered under this bureau. Most of them are operated as a manufacturer, distributer, agent, and retail merchant. By and large, the merchandise that produced by Terengganu originative enterprisers are batik-based merchandises, ceramics, wood carving, forest based fiber, “ Songket ” fabric, and silver. A sum of 175 enterprisers are chosen for this paper, nevertheless merely 105 enterprisers returned the questionnaires to the research worker.
In order to supply equal opportunity to the populations of sample at Kraftangan Malaysia, the research workers have chosen to utilize random trying for this paper. The sample of enterprisers is divided into six groups based on the type of handcraft produced as defined by Kraftangan Malaysia.
These types of handcraft are divided into batik, ceramics, wood curving, forest based, Songket ( cloth woven with gilded yarn ) and metal merchandises. In utilizing a random trying in spliting the originative enterprisers into merchandise based, research worker has used per centum to an equal opportunity to all the originative enterprisers. Table 2 shows the per centum of population and the sample based on merchandise categorization.
Data Analysis and Finding
In order to find the association between the five “ Entrepreneurial Characteristics ” and the enterpriser ‘s concern committedness as postulated in the first hypothesis, H1 the Bivariate Correlation is used. The Partial Correlation is used to find the influence of “ Government Incentives ” on the relationship stated in H1, and accordingly proving the 2nd hypothesis, H2
A descriptive analysis is foremost conducted before the illative analysis is executed in order to find the important of respondent ‘s entrepreneurial profile and their concern background with the factors in both entrepreneurial personality and concern public presentation.
Based on the dependability analysis, indicates that most of the variables that has been investigated in this survey are found to be extremely dependability as reference in a table 3. It means that the construction of questionnaire in this survey is good consistency.
A frequence of respondents in each portion of demographic profile is depicted in table 5. Most of originative enterprisers registered under Kraftangan Malaysia Terengganu are between the age between 40 and 60 ( 62 % ) old ages old followed by those in the 20 – 39 ( 25 % ) age bracket and the remainder are below 20 % . In term of gender, the bulk of originative enterprisers are male ( 61 % ) and female ( 39 % ) . Meanwhile, informations collected shoed that is 78.1 % of respondents are married, 12 % are widowed and merely 10.5 % are unmarried man. The bulk of enterprisers runing in the originative concern had their instruction concern ( 58.1 % ) , followed by those in humanistic disciplines ( 35.2 % ) , and societal scientific discipline ( 4.8 % ) . A few had their instruction in Science and Technology ( 1.9 % ) .
In term of concern profile, the consequence clearly shows that the bulk of originative enterprisers who are registered with Kraftangan Malaysia Terengganu are those marketing their merchandise in a territory degree ( 17 % ) and follow stated ( 44 % ) , national ( 36 % ) and International degree ( 3 % ) . The bulk of the enterprisers are bring forthing Batek based merchandise ( 31.4 % ) , followed silver merchandise ( 13.3 % ) .
Those bring forthing wood carving, forest based fiber, Pewter and Songket merchandises form the 3rd largest group at 12.4 % severally. The remainder signifier less than 3 % . As expected, the bulk of the concerns are exclusive proprietary ( 60 % ) followed by private endeavors ( Sdn.Bhd ) with 24.8 % and merely 15.2 % are partnerships. In footings of fiscal beginnings, the bulk of enterprisers uses their ain resources ( 42.9 % ) followed by authorities loan ( 40 % ) and authorities assistance ( 14.3 % ) . Merely 2.9 % receive fiscal helper from private fiscal establishments.
In this paper, entrepreneurial feature is considered the major independent variable which comprises of five elements that is postulated to hold a significance relationship with the enterpriser ‘s concern committedness. The five elements include ; necessitate for accomplishment, venue of control, creativeness, advanced and utilising market chances. This is stated in the first hypothesis as follows:
H1: There is Positive and Significant Relationship between Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Commitment
A Bivariate correlativity analysis is used to prove the way and strength of the relationship between the independent variables ; entrepreneurial features and concern committedness.
Consequences of the Bivariate correlativity analysis revealed that all the handcraft enterpriser ‘ features have a positive and important association with their concern committedness except for the concept “ Locust of Control ” . Entrepreneurs ‘ ability to utilize market chance showed the strongest association with the enterprisers ‘ concern committedness while demand for accomplishment had the lowest relationship with their concern committedness. High demand for accomplishment is associated the other enterprisers ‘ features except Locust of Control. Interestingly, positive degree of Locus of Control is associated with the negative degree of Innovativeness among the enterprisers. Creativity of the enterprisers may be linked to all other character except Locust of Control with the strongest relationship with utilizing and taking market chances. Innovativeness shown by the enterpriser is besides associated with all other enterpriser ‘s features. Using market chance and the degree of committedness among the enterprisers are positively associated with other features except for Locust of Control.
An application of authorities enterprise as a moderating variable is suggested as an effectual manner in supplying the little and average originative enterprisers with the necessary support in footings of authorities policies, concern assistance, and besides legal helper. These types of supports are considered to be critical in the concern enlargement of the originative enterprisers and their concern committedness. The impact of the authorities initiatives on the relationship between the originative enterprisers ‘ entrepreneurial features and their concern committedness is stated in the 2nd hypothesis every bit stated as follows:
H2: Government Initiative has a Moderating Effect on the Relationship Variable
The research worker conducted a partial Correlation analysis to find the chairing consequence of the variable “ Government Initiatives ” on the relationship between the enterprisers ‘ features and their concern committedness. Consequence of the partial correlativity analysis indicates that none of the enterprisers ‘ entrepreneurial features had any association with the enterprisers ‘ concern committedness.
These consequences indicate that the authorities enterprise is non a important influence in chairing the association between the enterprisers ‘ entrepreneurial features and their concern committedness.
One reading of this phenomenon is that regardless of the degree helper and inducements provided by the authorities, the handcraft enterpriser ‘s concern committedness is non affected by the authorities ‘s determination to help and supports the enterpriser ‘ concern activities. In add-on the low correlativity value revealed that there is deficiency of concern committedness from the enterprisers and they remain committed merely to their artistic intent and aims.
Discussion and Recommendation
Scholars have suggested that authorities enterprise in the heritage industry has provided the platform for trade creative persons to develop their entrepreneurial personality which significantly influences their concern committedness ( Einnarson, 2002 ) . Based on the consequence of the first hypothesis testing, the entrepreneurial features of the trade enterpriser at Kraftangan Malaysia, Terengganu has a low to chair degree of association with their concern committedness. The consequence highlighted the fact that private or public governments need to make more advanced and originative ways to heighten entrepreneurial plans in footings of the five entrepreneurial features discussed in this paper. Consequently, we would wish to offer two alterations in carry oning plans to upgrade the degree of personality among originative enterpriser in Kraftangan Malaysia, Terengganu, there are ;
Based on the Pearson Correlation ‘s consequence in proving the first hypothesis, entrepreneurial features have been proven to hold a positive and important relation to the concern committedness of the handcraft enterpriser. However, the association ranges from low to chair. This consequence indicates that the handcraft ( originative ) enterprisers in Terengganu should heighten and better their “ entrepreneurial features ” as this would actuate them to increase their concern committedness and later assist to develop their concern into a feasible and profitable venture.
These enterprisers should besides take the enterprise to develop their ain personal character in footings of taking disputing undertaking, work outing job, developing high assurance, ability to act upon events, ability to analyze market environment and besides making new concern scheme. This will assist them make a concern endeavor that is able to make a sustainable competitory advantage. Specifically, they have to alter their attitude and concern paradigm from being artistically committed into business-minded committed enterprisers as shown in table.
Table: Comparison between Artistic and Business Commitment
2. Humanistic disciplines motivated
2. Business and art motivated
4. Creative & A ; Innovative
5. Social oriented
5. Net income oriented
6. Merchandise value depend on manufacturer
6. Merchandise value depend on client
“ Entrepreneurial Development Model ” for Creative Entrepreneurs
As a authorities bureau, Kraftangan Malaysia of Terengganu need to sharply heighten and beef up the traditional accomplishment, workmanship and entrepreneurial characters of the originative enterprisers ( usahawan kraf ) who are registered under this bureau. In fact, Kraftangan Malaysia Terengganu are besides helping craftsman in using modern methods of production, and advancing their handcraft merchandises.
However, the authorities initiatives to help and develop the originative enterprisers in Terengganu have non shown the coveted consequences. Hence, authorities should revaluate their old activities and plans, and reconstruct new schemes to place failings in plans that were implemented to increase the enterprisers ‘ entrepreneurial features. Therefore, Kraftangan Malaysia, Terengganu should develop an entrepreneurial development theoretical account ( preparation and motive workshop, concern brooder etc ) , as a usher to originative enterprisers to place better personality traits which are necessary to develop their concern committedness. The chief content of this theoretical account is to help the originative enterprisers in developing strong entrepreneurial features such as the accomplishment and ability to seek better concern betterment, venue of control, originative, advanced and besides strategic to catch market chances in a competitory market.
Entrepreneurship research in the heritage industry is a new and under explored research in Malaysia. This is particularly true in entrepreneurship research among the little and average endeavor. We proposed that the development of entrepreneurial features in the heritage industry is the right attack to construct up the originative enterprisers ‘ concern committedness in their several field. A good substructure becomes useless if the originative enterprisers lack the concern direction accomplishment and desire to better their concern as discussed earlier.
The findings of this survey are applicable to a broad scope of heritage industry in Terengaanu and supply the necessary cognition to increase the degree of activities in the artistic and heritage industry into a new dimension. Furthermore, the Malayan authorities may use this determination as the foundation to develop new strategic programs, policies and plans to assist the originative enterprisers create sustainable competitory advantage in the Malayan and foreign heritage market.