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From a psychodynamic viewpoint, obesity may be explained by both the structure of one’s personality, as well as development through Freud’s psychosexual stages. The oral stage in Freud’s psychosexual model, examines the mouth as a focus of stimulation and interaction from birth-I year (Hoffnung et al. 2013). Freud’s theory further suggests that unresolved id, ego or super-ego conflicts at a particular stage may cause fixation (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). This fixation within the oral stage may explain the problem of obesity.

The oral activities or chewing or sucking food may provide pleasure, which in turn may increase ones consumption of food, which in turn increases ones pleasure. On the other hand, obesity may be explained by two different learning theories – Observational learning and Operate conditioning. Observational learning may influence the problem of obesity, as individuals may learn this behaviour through viewing a role model, who lacks healthy dietary and gains pleasure from their eating habits.

Through this observation and interactions with the role model a developing individual is likely to see the pleasure one gains out Of eating and therefore reproduce the modelled behaviour. The reinforcement of pleasure, is also shown in Skinners operate conditioning, where behaviour that is positively reinforced will increase the likelihood that the response will occur again. Therefore, if eating is followed by the positive reinforcement of pleasure, the eating behaviour will continue, possibly at higher than normal rates. . Imagine that you conduct a longitudinal study concerning the development of confidence in romantic relationships among university students. You study the participants from the age of 1 8 to 22 years. What would you be able to learn that you could not learn by conducting a cross-sectional study on the same topic? What would be two potential limitations with this design? ongitudinal studies provide correlated research involving repeated bservations over a period of time, using the same participants (Hoffnung, et al. 2013).

A longitudinal study provides the researcher the ability to gain an insight into the relationship age has with confidence in romantic relationships (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). Furthermore, a longitudinal design also provides the researcher with a superior understanding of a participant’s individual confidence within their own romantic relationships. On the other hand, a cross-sectional study compares different participants of different ages/groups in relation to different variables at a particular point in time (Hoffnung, et al. 013).

Though, for this investigation, if a researcher was to conduct a cross- sectional study, individual confidence of romantic relationships is less prominent as a cross-sectional design focuses more on the differences within the groups rather than within individuals. A cross-sectional study would also not gain insight into the effect that age has on ones confidence in romantic relationships. In saying this, two potential limitations of a longitudinal design may include – high dropout rates as well as the cost and the extensive time factor in conducting this research (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). Lecture 2 3.

A pregnant woman explains to you that she was exposed to certain chemicals at her workplace early in her pregnancy. She is worried about the potential impact this could have on her baby. In your assessment, what are three factors that you would consider in determining the possible influence of this teratogen? What might you suggest to the mother as a means to help prevent any negative effects? Factors that would need to be assessed would be the specific time period during the pregnancy the woman was exposed to the teratogen; the length of exposure to the teratogen as well as the type of teratogen Of which she was exposed to.

Assessing the specific time period Of the pregnancy, allows for one to determine whether the teratogen was present during the critical period. The critical period is a limited time frame where particular complex genetic codes are enabling developmental changes to occur (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). It is at this point in a pregnancy where developmental changes are highly vulnerable to disruption, and assessing this period will provide an understanding of the impact on the baby (Hoffnung, et al. 2013).

The knowledge of both the type of teratogen and the length of expose to the chemical may further provide understanding into the isk to the baby. Suggestions for the mother as a prevention to help any negative side effects would be to refer her to a GP and have an ultrasonography and maternal serum completed in order to show the babies wellbeing (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). It would also be recommended that the woman no longer works within the vicinity of these chemicals so no further expose will occur. Though, there is less of a risk that the chemicals will affect to the babies development, later in pregnancy. . One friend has recently become pregnant and is worried about the possibility of Down syndrome. Explain to this friend the overall risk Of the isorder, the mechanism of inheritance and how they can screen for this disorder. Another friend’s father has recently been diagnosed with Huntington’s disease. Explain the risk of inheritance to your friend, referring to the mechanisms of inheritance (you may use diagrams). Down syndrome is a genetic disorder generally caused by an extra twenty-first chromosome of the translocation, or transfer part of the twenty-first chromosome onto another (Hoffnung, et al. 013). Down syndrome is more common for those whose mothers are over the age of 35 and are from older fathers (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). Though, the overall risk factor of having a child with Down syndrome is one in every 800, or 1-2% with only one affected child (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). Down syndrome can be detected through many different procedures including amniocentesis at 14-18 weeks; maternal serum alpha- foetoprotein 15-18 and percutaneous umbilical cord sample 18-36 weeks (Hoffnung, et al. 2013).

Huntington’s disease is a dominant gene disorder which only requires one abnormal gene from either parent for their offspring to be affected (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). Huntington’s involves the gradual degeneration of the sufferer’s central nervous system (Hoffnung, et al. 013). This ultimately results in uncontrollable movements and a decline in the sufferer’s mental abilities (Hoffnung et al. 2013). Huntington’s disease is a dominant gene which is located on a carriers fourth chromosome (Hoffnung, et al. 2013).

Inheritance of dominant genes can be demonstrated in the following diagram. Affected parent (has the disorder) Normal parent Dominant (D) Recessive (r) Dr Affected 25% Dr Affected Lecture 3 1. You are concerned that a 3 month old infant has sensory problems. In relation to vision and hearing, what sensory abilities would you expect the child to have? Identify a strategy that you could you test if the child is progressing as expected for each sense. In relation to vision and hearing a 3 month old should begin to intentionally look at sights and listen to sounds.

By 3 months, one would expect a baby to be able to match voices with faces and to be able to distinguish between faces and voices (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). By 3 months a baby should also begin to understand size constancy. Size constancy refers to one’s recognition that an object remains the same, even though the retinal image of the object changes as you move toward or away from the object (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). A baby of 3 months will also begin to form depth perception. A baby Of this age should also be able to distinguish differences in similar sounds, as well as the pitch and location of the sound (Hoffnung, et al. 013). A babys hearing ability may be tested through seeing if they turn their head toward a sounds location. Exploring whether a baby shows differences in recognising voices, by monitoring heart rate, (increase in heart rate when a familiar voice is heard) may also provide evidence. Sight may be tested by seeing if a baby traces a moving object with their eyes. 2. What sensory and perceptual changes can an older adult expect? What implications do these changes have with respect to an older adult’s lifestyle? During late adulthood, there is a significant decline in both senses and perception.

Much of this is due to a loss of accommodation, which refers to one’s ability to change the focus of the eye (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). There are also three eye diseases that affect the elder population; cataract which is a clouding of the lens; glaucoma from optic nerve damage and age related muscular degeneration referring to loss of vision in the centre of the visual field, due to a damaged retina (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). Much like sight, all of he other senses decline with age. Hearing loss, like the decline in sight, is a primary ageing process.

Presbycusis refers to age-related decline in hearing, caused by changes in the otter and middle ear and a loss Of hair cells and nerves in the inner ear (Hoffnung et al. 2013). Sensitivity of both taste and smell, also degenerate with age. Much like the decline in sensory abilities, older adults experience difficulty in processing or interpreting sensory information. The decline in both sensory and perceptual abilities, many present changes in one’s lifestyle. For example those older adults with ignificant decline in both sensation and perception may no longer be able to drive a car.

A sufficient decline in hearing may also lead to the assistance of hearing aids. Lecture 4 1 . Eighteen-month-old Mickey is visiting Taronga Zoo for the first time. At the park he sees some zebras, an animal with which he is unfamiliar and he shouts out “Horses”. His brother, Tommy is familiar with Zebras and explains that this is a different animal that comes from Africa. As a result, Mickey modifies his schema for animals to include zebras. Explain how Piaget’s theory of cognitive development accounts for both Mickey’s initial reaction nd his ability to modify his schema?

Schemes are psychological structures, or patterns of actions or concepts that help a child to make sense of and adapt to the environment (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). In the case of Mickey, the schemes of a horse is generalised to all other four legged animals of similar appearance to a horse. Though, when Tommy explains to Mickey that these are in fact zebras, the processes of assimilation and accommodation are shown. Assimilation is a process involving the interpretation of new experiences and incorporating this new found knowledge into previous scheme (Hoffnung, et al. 013).

Then the process of accommodation is shown where the modification of the old schemes now fits the new experience (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). In Mickey’s case, a zebra will still be recognised as an animal similar to a horse. Though through accommodation, Mickey is now able to understand that a horse and a zebra are two different four legged animals. The combination of assimilation and accommodation, allow for Mickey to eventually create a new scheme for zebra, as he is able to recognise the differences between a horse and zebra. 2. Suppose that an infant fails to develop an understanding of object ermanence.

How would this deficit influence his behaviour and knowledge of the world Object permanence refers to a child’s belief that objects exist separately from their own actions and continue to exist even when they cannot be seen (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). Object permanence is considered to be one of the earliest methods for evaluating working memory (Jean, Maclean, Shaffer, Watterberg 2009). A lack of object permanence may lead to A-not-B errors. This type of error is demonstrated when a child reaches for an object at a place where it should not be (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). Research

Suggests this type of error might be due to a failure in memory or the fact that infants usually tend to repeat a previous motor behaviour (Santrock 2008). If a child does not obtain an understanding of object permanence experiences the idea of ‘out of sight, out of mind’ (Hoffnung, et al. 2013). An example of this may be the question of a tree falling in the middle of the woods with no one around… does it still make a noise? For those with an understanding of object permanence would say of course it still does.

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