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How OD and HR personnel are OD practitioners Organizational change attempts to increase productivity and effectiveness through invigorated employees who are able to develop creativity, imagination, and, above all, innovation. Managing change effectively can be a tough and complex challenge. Organizational change management requires leadership to function properly. Kotter (1995, 98) has acknowledged the formation of a guiding coalition as an important learning point from unsuccessful change initiatives.

A recommended approach by Brown and Harvey (2006, 99) is a team consists of an external practitioner working directly with an internal practitioner to initiate and facilitate organizational change. The collaborative relationship between both practitioners provides an integration of abilities, skills, and resources. The external practitioners from outside the organization bring expertise, objectivity, and new insights to organization problems. In contrast, the internal practitioners often operate out of the human resources area.

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Lawler and Mohrman (2003) stress the significant role of human resources in the formulation and implementation of change strategies. They strongly suggest HR function as a strategic partner in helping the organizations to initiate change management by contributing comprehensive knowledge on organization issues and norms, a long-time acquaintance with employees, and an attentiveness of system strengths and weaknesses (Lawler & Mohrman, 2003). Besides external-internal practitioner team, Karp (2004, 349) also acknowledged that the responsibility for change must be assigned to a broader range of internal and external stakeholders.

In order to effectively manage change initiatives, a successful guiding team should involve the chairman, senior managers, board members, representatives from key customers, and even a union leader (Kotter, 1995). From the perspective of Kotter (1995, 98), it is necessary to include external stakeholder due to the fact that if the existing internal system is working well, there would be no need for organizational change. However, since the current system is inefficient, the change management thus demands activity outside of formal boundaries, prospects, and practices.

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