How Telecommunication From Start To Finish Has Changed Business Abstract This paper explores how telecommunications started in the 1800’s and how we have developed this technology in the United State and other countries around the world. It will explain the development of the telephone, cable television, and the internet. There will be a brief history behind each technology and how they all tie into each other now. It will also explain how telecommunication has changed business forever, and will continue to change at an exponential rate. The telecommunication industry has many new jobs that will be explained in this paper.
Telecommunications includes voice, video, and Internet communications services. The telecommunications industry is divided into three main parts: wired, wireless, and satellite. New technologies will be made in the future off of these important inventions. How telecommunication has change business Communication started when man was able to communicate with drums and smoke signals over distances in ancient times. The word telecommunication means the transmission of information, as words, sounds, or images, usually over great distances, in the form of electromagnetic signals, as by telegraph, telephone, radio, or television. Telecommunication, 2010) In 1836, Samuel Morse figured out a way to transmit information over wires by way of a telegraph. He designed a code that used electrical signals to create a word or phrase. Short signals are represented as dots, and long were represented as dashes. After eight years Morse presented to Congress how useful the telegraph could be. He transmitted the phase “What hath God wrought” over a wire from Washington to Baltimore (WRVM). Many people tried and failed until to Alexander Graham Bell were awarded the first U. S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876.
The telephone is a device that converts sound, specifically a human’s voice, to electrical impulses of various frequencies and then back to a tone that sounds like the original voice. (Telephone, 2009) Many improvements where made over time to the telephone. Around 1935 the first phone call around the world was made. Twelve years later in 1947 the basic concept of the cellular phone began. It was named ‘cellular’ because it uses many base stations that divide a service area into multiple ‘cells (Bellis,n. d. ). In the early 70s Motorola made the first cell phone call. Now 40 years later almost 50% of the world has a cell phone (Reuter, 2010).
From the first telegraph transmission to the first telephone call it took about 50 years. From the first telephone to the first cell phone technology it took a little over 50 years. From Cellular technology to the first cell phone call it took about 25 years. Now we have video, email, phone, music, and just about any application you can think of. It seems like every month there is a new kind of cell phone that has something that no other phone can do. I just saw a commercial for a phone that can record video, send it to contacts and then call all the contact at the same time and discuss what they saw.
Now that is telecommunication at its finest. Within the next 10 even 5 years the phone technology will not exist. We will find a new technology that will surpass it. One of the most important telecommunication in the world would be the invention of the television. In 1927 Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover spoke in Washington and he was not only, heard but he was seen as well in the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. This was one of the first television broad casts in the United States of America. (Troy, 1927) By 1950 about eight million television sets were sold and over 100 stations were available in the United States of America.
From 1939 until today, there have been over 220 television set manufacturers that made sets in & for the USA market. Today there are over 20 television set manufacturers left in this very competitive market, but the television set are not the key it’s the technology that brings us the information across thousands of miles at light speed. In the 1940s and 1950s cable television had very poor reception until “community antennas” were built on mountain tops or high points. In the late 1950s “distant signals” began to change the focus of cable’s role from one of transmitting local broadcast signals to one of providing new programming choices.
By 1962 there were around 850,000 subscribers and well known corporate names began investing in the business (NCTA, 2010). In the 70s the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) started to enact regulations that limited the cable operators programming. This is the time that the business aspect of cable television became a part of American history. When the cable companies can regulate what people are able to get for free or at a lower rate, they can charge more for other syndicated programming.
From 1984 to 1992 the cable industry forked over more than 15 billion dollars on the wiring of America. This was the largest private construction project since World War II. In 2001 there were more than twenty two million cable customers in the United States and now there are over 100 million cable subscribers in the US (NCTA, 2010). From the first broadcast that Hoover made to having 8 million television sets in America it only took about 25 years. Now only 50 to 60 years later there TV’s in cars, their light weight and flat, some are hand held and some up to 77” in size.
The one in Dallas Stadium is the largest TV in the world it is 160’ by 70’ which is 11,000 square feet, and it is HDTV (Harris, 2008). In my opinion the most important technology in the telecommunication field would be the Internet. Without the phone and cable technology there would not be the internet. When The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) launched the first artificial earth satellite in 1957 named Sputnik, the following year the US decided that they need to form an agency within the Department of Defense called Advance Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
This agency was established to lead the US in science and technology for the military. In 1966 the first ARPAnet (Advance Research Projects Agency Network) plan was introduced by Larry Roberts of MIT. In 1969, the first official network nodes were UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah. The first node to node message was sent from UCLA to SRI. In 1971, more nodes join the network, bringing the total to 15. These new nodes include Harvard and NASA. A few years later ARPAnet went global when the University College of London and Norway’s Royal Radar establishment join up.
In 1981 “Because It’s Time NETwork” or (BITNET) had people in universities all over the world; it had world-wide email; it had real-time, interactive chat, one-to-one or in chat rooms; it had world-wide remote file archives you could find files from by issuing commands; it had world-wide email discussion lists; you could query if people were logged on across the world; it had disconnected answering machines; and it had email to and from all other networks. The whole thing was the beginning of the Internet. In the early 1990s the “World Wide Web” or WWW was introduced by CERN. CERN or
European Organization for Nuclear Research was and is still one of the world’s largest companies for scientific research. Tim Berners-Lee developed the first web server call nxoc01. cern. ch and later named info. cern. ch (Zakon, 2010). Traditional online dial-up systems like CompuServe and America Online (AOL) began to provide internet access for a small monthly fee. The public started paying money for the internet, which lead to the end of free registration of domain names. On September 14th an annual fee of fifty dollar was imposed. (Zakon, 2010) People started to make this a business, buying and selling domain names.
Businesses spent thousands even millions of dollars buying these names from people. The domain name TV. com sold for $15,000 in 1996, and it only took a little over ten years for the a company to spend estimated 16 million dollars for the domain name Insure. com (Zakon, 2010 ). From Sputnik to the World Wide Web it took roughly 50 years. Then 20 years later we have an endless amount of information at our finger tips. There is bit of a pattern here with these three telecommunications technology. These technologies combined can make a business thrive in the fast pace market.
The telecommunications industry delivers telephone, television, Internet, and other services to customers throughout the United States. Providing the primary means of communication to virtually all businesses, households, and individuals, telecommunications firms supply an essential service to the U. S. economy. In addition to offering traditional services such as wired phone and cable TV, telecommunications companies also offer services such as cellular phone, broadband and mobile Internet, and satellite TV, among others. The telecommunications industry is divided into three main parts: wired, wireless, and satellite.
The largest part of the telecommunications industry continues to be made up of wired telecommunications carriers. Companies in this field mainly provide telecommunications services such as such as wired (landline) telephone, digital subscriber line (DSL) Internet, and cable TV and Internet services (Telecommunication, 2010). These organizations route TV, voice, Internet, data, and other content over a network of wires and cables, and control access to this content. They may own and maintain networks, share networks with other organizations, or lease network capacity from other companies.
Companies in the telecommunications industry, however, do not create the content that is transmitted over their networks, such as TV programs. Wired telecommunications also includes direct-to-home satellite television distributors and a variety of other businesses (Telecommunication, 2010). Wireless telecommunications carriers provide telephone, Internet, data, and other services to customers through the transmission of signals over networks of radio towers. The signals are transmitted through an antenna directly to customers, who use devices, such as cell phones and mobile computers, to receive, interpret, and send information.
A large component of this industry segment consists of companies that provide cellular phone service, which has grown rapidly over the past decade. Another component includes companies that deliver mobile Internet services to individuals with Internet-enabled cellular phones and computers. Satellite telecommunications companies are made up mostly of government and private organizations that transmit a variety of data through satellites, including photos of the earth, messages to and from public safety officials, and a variety of other information. Direct-to-home satellite TV providers, however, are classified with wired telecommunications.
After recent developments, telecommunications carriers are expanding their data transmission capabilities, known as “bandwidth,” by replacing copper wires with fiber optic cables. Fiber optic cable, which transmits light signals along glass strands, permits faster, higher capacity transmissions than traditional copper wire. In some areas, carriers are extending fiber optic cable to residential customers, enabling them to offer cable television, video-on-demand, faster high-speed Internet, and conventional telephone communications over a single line (Freudenrich, 2006).
Wireless telecommunications carriers are deploying several new technologies to allow faster data transmission and better Internet access in an effort to make them more competitive in a market that includes wired Internet carriers (Telecommunication, 2010). With faster connection speeds, wireless carriers can transmit music, videos, applications, and other content that can be downloaded and played on cellular phones, giving users mobile access to large amounts of data. In addition, as use of this mobile technology increases, wireless companies ontinue to develop the next generation of technologies that will allow even faster data transmission. Most workers in the telecommunications industry worked 40 hours per week in 2008, but about 14 percent worked more than 50 hours, on average. Workers in this industry are sometimes required to work overtime, especially during emergencies such as floods or hurricanes when employees may need to report to work with little notice to help restore network connections. Individuals in installation, maintenance, and repair occupations work in a variety of settings, both indoors and outdoors, and in all kinds of weather.
Their work involves lifting, climbing, reaching, stooping, crouching, and crawling. They often work in high places, such as rooftops and telephone poles. Their jobs bring them into proximity with electrical wires and circuits, so they must take precautions to avoid shocks. These workers must wear safety equipment when entering manholes, and test for the presence of gas before going underground (Telecommunication, 2010). Most telecommunications managers, administrative workers, and professionals work in clean, comfortable offices.
Customer service representatives often work in call centers where they answer customer service calls, and may be required to work evening and weekend hours. The telecommunications industry provided about 1. 0 million wage and salary jobs in 2008. Wired telecommunications carriers accounted for about 666,100 of these jobs in 2008, while 202,700 were in wireless telecommunications carriers (Telecommunication, 2010). Telecommunications jobs are found in almost every part of the country, but most employees work in cities that have large concentrations of industrial and business establishments.
Despite increasing demand for telecommunications services, employment in the telecommunications industry is expected to decline. Job opportunities, however, will arise from the need to replace a significant number of workers who are expected to retire in the coming decade. With rapid technological changes in telecommunications, those with up-to-date technical skills will have the best job opportunities. Employment in the telecommunications industry is expected to decline by 9 percent over the 2008–18 period, compared with 11 percent growth for all industries combined (Telecommunication, 2010).
Despite an increasing demand for wireless Internet, cable television, and mobile technologies, productivity gains will result in a reduced demand for workers. As telecommunications infrastructure becomes more reliable, for example, fewer workers will be needed to make repairs. Also, consolidation among organizations will lead to productivity growth across many occupational groups, as combined operations generally require fewer total workers. Households will demand more services such as wireless Internet, video-on-demand, and mobile -Internet based telephone services.
Businesses will demand faster and more advanced telecommunications systems to improve communication and electronic commerce. These services are being supplied increasingly by all the competing sectors of the industry, as the lines become blurred between cable and satellite TV, and between wireless and wired phone and Internet systems. Employment, however, is projected to decline in both the wired and wireless fields (Telecommunication, 2010). Wireless companies will continue to introduce new technologies and services and provide faster Internet access.
Employment, however, is expected to decline by 1 percent over the projection period. Demand will decrease for installation, maintenance, and repair occupations as the rate of expansion of the wireless infrastructure slows, because upgrading existing equipment is less labor-intensive than installing new equipment. Some occupations, however, will not see such declines. Demand for customer service representatives will grow as these workers will be needed to accommodate an increase in customers. In addition, computer specialists will not see declines because these workers will be needed to develop new technologies.
Employment in wired telecommunications carriers is expected to decline by 11 percent. Fiber optic cables, which are more reliable than their copper-wire counterparts, are expected to account for an increasing portion of the wired infrastructure. This will result in fewer installation, maintenance, and repair workers, as malfunctions occur less frequently. Employment should decline in most other occupational groups as well, as wired services, such as landline phones and cable Internet, lose market share to their wireless counterparts (Freudenrich, 2006).
Job openings are expected to arise in the telecommunications industry as a result of the growing number of retirements and the continuing need for skilled workers. Prospects will be best for installation, maintenance, and repair workers, many of whom are expected to retire in the coming years, as well as for customer service representatives, who tend to have high turnover, creating many openings. Opportunities in these occupations will be best for applicants with 2-year or 4-year degrees, as well as the necessary skills (Telecommunication, 2010).
There is a variety of jobs in the field of telecommunications. As of right now the opportunities are endless. Although the telecommunications industry employs workers in many different occupations, 52 percent of all workers are employed in either installation, maintenance, and repair occupations or office and administrative support occupations. Telecommunication workers install, repair, and maintain telephone equipment, cables and access lines, and telecommunications systems (Telecommunication, 2010). These workers can be grouped by the type of work they perform.
Line installers and repairers connect central offices to customers’ buildings. I was one of these employees a few years ago. I installed fiber-optics for a sub-company of Verizon. We also installed poles, terminals, and laid wires and cables that lead to a consumer’s premises. Others installed lines or equipment inside a customer’s business or residence. We use power-driven equipment to dig holes and set telephone poles. Line installers climb the poles or work in truck-mounted buckets, also known as “aerial work platforms,” and attach the cables using various hand tools.
After line installers place cables on poles or towers or in underground conduits and trenches, they complete the line connections. Some line installers, called cable splicers, specialize in splicing together two telecommunication lines. Telecommunications equipment installers and repairers install, repair, and maintain the array of increasingly complex and sophisticated communications equipment. Their work includes setting up, rearranging, and removing the complex switching and routing equipment used in central offices. They may also solve network-related problems.
Some telecommunications equipment installers are referred to as station installers and repairers or telecommunications service technicians. They install, service, and repair telephone systems and other communications equipment on customers’ property. When customers first purchase a service, move to another home or office, or request new types of service, these workers install the necessary equipment and wiring (Telecommunication, 2010). They also connect telephone, Internet, and TV equipment to outside service wires, sometimes climbing poles or ladders to make these connections.
Cable installers travel to customers’ premises to set up pay television service so that customers can receive programming. Cable service installers connect a customer’s television set to the cable serving the entire neighborhood. Wireless and satellite service installers attach antennas or satellite dishes to the sides of customers’ houses. These devices must be positioned to provide clear lines of sight to satellite locations (Patel, R. (2007). Installers check the strength and clarity of the television signal before completing the installation. They also may need to explain to the subscriber how certain television services operate.
As these services expand to include additional features, it is increasingly important that installers have an understanding of the basic service technology and computer software and be able to communicate that knowledge to customers. Customer service representatives help customers understand the new and varied types of services offered by telecommunications providers. They answer customer questions and respond to complaints. Customer service representatives spend a considerable amount of time on the phone, but some may respond to inquiries by email, traditional mail, or in person.
Some customer service representatives also are expected to sell services and may work on a commission basis (Patel, R. (2007). Other administrative support workers include financial, information, and records clerks; secretaries and administrative assistants; and first-line managers of office and administrative support workers. These workers keep service records, compile and send bills to customers, and prepare statistical and other company reports, among other duties. References Aboba, Bernard (1993). How the Internet Came to Be. The Online User’s Encyclopedia, 2, 7-10.
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