Physical properties and satisfactory evaluations with 30 volunteer consumers of developed instant noodles with citrus pectin were moderately and very satisfied in the same as the standard formula instant noodles without pectin. The efficacy on weight and body hape reduction (waist, buttock and top of the arm) of developed instant noodles with citrus pectin was better than that of the standard formula instant noodles without pectin. Key words: Pectin, noodle, weight reduction, neutraceutical product, health, fiber, cholesterol, meal replacement.
Introduction Now-a-day obesity is an important health problem found in many children and adults, especially women, because fat affects health and is one of a high risk factor to human being, of 10-100% earlier mortality, 7 times more diabetes, 3 times more hypertension, 2-3 times more stone gall bladder, more eart disease and more kidney diseases than normal man 11. Nevertheless too fat figure looks un-smart which leads to bad mentality and un-confidence, methods of weight reduction are directed to behavior adjustment such as food control and exercise programs.
The unsatisfied fats want to rapidly reduce the weight, so they are used in the pills for obesity management such as anorexic, diuretic, thyroid hormone, and cathartic, using one or combination medication. These medications might be dangerous because some of them are not proper way of anti-obesity. The patients who use anorexic pills may get side ffects such as sleepless, hand and heart tremble, fidget, moody, headache, sluggish, confusion, dry mouth, rapid heart beating, hypertension etc.
A lot of quantity of thyroid hormone utilization leads to side effects of heart tremble, seating and hyperthyroidism. So the idea of anti-obesity product invention as health food is sparked. The natural substances such as glucomannan in konjac, chitosan and Lyophilized Collagen Hydrolysate (LCH) are developed to various anti-obesity formulations such as constituted soluble powder, capsules and tablets. These formulations do not meet consumer’s compliance, the users do not meet oral equirement, and so they always eat pity snack and sweet that they do not success in weight reduction.
Imported natural substances are of high cost, so the objective was to study pectin extracted from citrus waste such as the peel of lemon, orange and pomelo. Pectin is a linear polysaccharide consisting mainly of 126 galacturonic acid and galacturonic-acid methyl esters 6. When it mixes to water in gastric fluid, a swollen mixture fulfills the stomach, the viscous of the mixture makes it slowly move out the gaster, which leads to non-appetite for a long time 3. Then pectin might be attached to the nutritional composition nd results to less gastric digestion 4 and less absorption 5.
Besides Baker et al. 1 found the relationship between less blood cholesterol and pectin consumption. Polednak 7 said pectin fiber is adjuvant to better gastro, intestinal movement and results to better defecation with constipation relief and less opportunity of large intestinal cancer. Materials and Methods Standardized and qualified citrus pectin from lime peel (low methoxy grade type# 7210) was bought from East-Asiatic Company. Wheat flour, food seasoning and other ingredients were bought from supermarket in Hat Yai district, Songkhla, Thailand.
Other chemicals were of standard laboratory grade bought from local representative company. Instant noodle with pectin was prepared according to the standard noodle formulation and preparation 13 modified by adding citrus pectin into the wheat flour, mixed and cut into noodle strand. Dicalcium phosphate was added to form cross-link with the citrus pectin fiber, and a strong networking was constructed. Then instant noodles with pectin were evaluated for the following qualities: physical properties, such as texture, color, flavor, and noodle fiber morphology was studied by scanning lectron microscopy.
Nutritional properties of the products were quantitatively analyzed for protein, fat, ash, moisture and dietary fiber and energy of instant noodles was also calculated in calories. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, Vol. 7 (3&4), July-October 2009 IA Without pectin noodle formula 1B Noodle formula with 6 g of pectin Noodle formula with whole pectin Figure 1 . The morphology of the fiber in the instant noodle various formulations under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with 3,000 times magnification.
Consumer satisfactory to instant noodles with pectin was valuated by 30 healthy fat volunteers with 6-point hedonic scale questionnaires. The topics were sensational feeling, such as color, flavor, softness and toughness. Effectiveness Of instant noodles with pectin for weight reduction was evaluated by 30 fat female volunteers, aged 30-40 years and weighted 55-56 kg. The volunteers were measured weight, height, waistline, hipline, and brachium line before and after the product consumption.
Besides the consumers eating and defecating behavior were also noted. The volunteers consumed either instant noodle with pectin solely or seasoned with desired egetable and meat, unlimited time and quantity. Comparative study with another 30 fat female volunteers, similar aged and weighted, but ate instant noodle without pectin.