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This paper analyses the possible entry into the European low-cost ( no-frills ) market of a new entrant get downing its operations from merely one path between London and Barcelona. The paper analyses different facets of come ining selling including the demand factors such as the volume, cleavage, seasonal fluctuations and stableness every bit good as the supply factors such as the competition on the path and with other manners of conveyance and substructure available. The paper is organised in three subdivisions. First subdivision provides inside informations on the path selected, 2nd discusses the barriers to entry on the path and the 3rd and last subdivision concludes the paper by noticing on the mentality of market entry on the clients.

Section A: Path

The path selected for this assignment is between London and Barcelona. London is the capital of United Kingdom and one of the largest urban countries in Europe. London uninterrupted to be one the world’s major hubs for concern, fiscal and cultural activities that makes it a genuinely planetary metropolis. It is besides a really popular tourer finish and is expected to pull many more tourers being the host of 2012 Olympics along with many other grounds. The metropolis has first-class conveyance links and besides acts as a conveyance hub for a much wider country particularly for international travel ( WMRC, 2007 ) . Barcelona on the other manus is the 2nd largest metropolis of Spain and a major economic Centre being one of Europe’s chief Mediterranean ports ( WMRC, 2007a ) .

The London – Barcelona path has experienced phenomenal growing since the launch of low-frills air hoses ( as shown in table 1 ) . As compared to other major finishs in Europe such as Amsterdam, Rome, Milan and Frankfurt etc. the traffic in London-Barcelona path is set to turn at 15.9 % in long term that provides exciting chances for new enterprisers to capitalize upon ( CAA, 2006 ; Barrett, 2003 )


Table 1: Impact of no-frills entry on the cardinal European paths from London

Beginning: CAA ( 2008 )

Market Section

London-Barcelona is a short-haul path therefore the airdrome experience is more of import than the in-flight experience for client satisfaction and therefore an ideal path for no-frills air hose that specialises in provided basic services during flight to cut cost and base on balls on the nest eggs to the clients. This besides means that comparatively smaller aircraft without many fancy characteristics will be appropriate for the path.

Second, due to the place of both metropoliss as major economic hubs in their several states, there is a demand for frequent concern travel between both metropoliss, nevertheless the bulk of travelers for no-frills air hoses are expected to be sing for leisure intents e.g. vacation shapers and sing friends and relations ( VFRs ) . It is estimated that over 12 million people visit Spain from UK every twelvemonth and the figure is set to turn due to increasing tendency of people traveling from UK to Spain giving rise to VFR market ( CAA, 2006 ) .


Over 2.5 million people travel from London to Barcelona every twelvemonth and the figure is estimated to turn at 15.9 % per twelvemonth ( CAA, 2006 ) . In fact among all European finishs, Barcelona and Geneva are the lone two finishs where growing has been stimulated by the entry of no-frill air hoses in both the short and long term. Before the entry of no-frills the London-Barcelona air travel market was turning at 7.5 % per twelvemonth which jumped to 32 % in first twelvemonth after the entry of no-frills air hoses and settled to 15.9 % in the long term. This shows clearly that entry of another no-frills air hose has the possible to catalyze market growing even further ( Barrett, 2004 ) .

Seasonal Variations

The concern travel between London and Barcelona is expected to be reasonably consistent throughout the twelvemonth and is less affected by the seasonal fluctuations, nevertheless the leisure travel is surely at its extremum in the summer when the bulk of British tourers hit Spain in hunt of Sun, sea and sand. Therefore demand is set to be at its extremum from mid May to September. Besides the school vacations during the summer months catalyse the leisure travel at this clip and even the VFR demand is on high at the same clip. In winters, although demand is low, but sing the Mediterranean clime in Spain particularly its southern and south-eastern parts with comparatively mild winters, well more traffic is expected as compared to some other finishs in the part ( WMRC, 2007 ) .

Stability or Volatility of demand

The demand for both the concern and leisure travel on London-Barcelona path is really stable due to the close societal and political ties both states enjoy. Spain remains to be one of the most tourist finishs in UK and London ever fascinates the Spaniards. Although most traffic is expected from London to Spain as compared to from Spain to London, but major athleticss events like Olympics, scheduled in London in 2012 is expected to increase many creases the figure of people going from Spain to London and therefore the mark market is expected to turn at a much higher rate, ( WMRC, 2007 )

Existing competition( rivals and other manners of conveyance )

Figure 1: Traffic development in the wider Barcelona market between 1986 and 2005.
Beginning: CAA ( 2008 )

Since 1992, the London-Barcelona path was dominated by the traditional air hoses, Spanish flag bearer Iberia and the British flag bearer British Airways ( BA ) with both runing from London Heathrow and Gatwick airdromes to Barcelona. During this period, the figure of travelers grew by impressive 15 % a twelvemonth helped in portion by the 1992 Olympic games in Barcelona. However, BA stopped its services from Gatwick in 1993 and the degrees of traffic remained largely inactive until the growing resumed once more in 1995 ( Aviation Strategy, 2006 ) .

The first air hose to come in this duopoly was Spanish owned Europa which claimed to offer quality services on low-cost and was modelled on the Debonair concern theoretical account. Air Europa started its services from November 1995 with a day-to-day flight from Gatwick airdrome. Easy Jet and Debonair shortly followed with day-to-day flights from Luton airdrome in June 1996. Stansted was chosen as the airdrome to run from by the BA’s no-frills subordinate Go in September 1999 ( CAA, 2006 ) .

In 2002 Go was acquired by easy Jet who took over its operations and added another service on the same path from Gatwick in the same twelvemonth. Ryanair was the last entrant to the market in February 2003 by taking over Buzz’s service from London Gatwick to Gerona that had begun in April 2001. It farther consolidated its place in the market by get downing services to Reus from Stansted in November 2003 and to both Gerona and Reus from Luton in January 2005 ( Barrett, 2004 ; CAA, 2006 ) .

Figure 2 shows the impact of these entrants in the market by showing the full-service traffic in the London-Barcelona market during 1993 to 2006 and the monthly growing rates for overall traffic. It can be clearly seen that there are a figure of rivals in the market on this path. The air hose industry besides faces competition from the route links and manager services from London to Barcelona and from train services every bit good. However it has competitory advantage due to the shorter journey times ( CAA, 2006 ) .

Figure 2: Growth rates on London/Barcelona, January 1993 – March 2006

Beginning: CAA ( 2008 )


London has one of the universe best conveyance system that links all its airdromes Heathrow, Gatwick, City Luton, and Stansted to the metropolis itself and outskirt countries. The belowground train system known as ‘tube’ allows seamless agencies of conveyance in the metropolis. The Barcelona airdrome in the 2nd biggest airdrome in Spain and has state-of-the-art installations including first-class connexion with the metropolis of Barcelona itself and other countries through train, tube and coach links along with expressway.

Section B: Barriers to Entry

Some of the cardinal barriers of entry are explained as follows:

Economies of Scale

The new air hose faces competition with air hoses that have a figure of operations on the same path every bit good as on several other paths. In contrast to the new air hose who will depend on merely one path for some clip at least for all its gross and profitableness, others have multiple gross watercourses and big figure of operations that means that they may be able to offer same service on lower monetary value without it impacting their gross and profitableness that much. The new air hose may try to undertake it by maintaining its plane in the air more to at least be competitory on one path merely ( Gilbert et al. , 2001 ) .

Capital Requirements

Establishing an air hose is extremely capital intensive concern. The company has to rent an aeroplane, obtain necessary staff including pilots and so forth, fulfil assorted legal duties with respects to adherence with ordinances about safety of operations and care of plane and besides negotiate with airdromes to utilize them for its operations. However we assume that the company has already done its prep in this respect and obtained the finance required.

Entree to Distribution Channel

Most rivals have long established webs of distribution and already work with popular travel companies. They besides have partnerships with hotels, vacation resorts and auto hire companies and this allows them to be portion of bundled offers. The new company will hold to work hard to set up its ain web of spouses to counter the rivals in this respect. However following the likes of easy Jet, the new entrant can entirely utilize cyberspace for engagements and fining.


As the new entrant would try to vie on monetary values, the officeholders may react by service distinction and since they already have a pool of clients, they may be able to command some client trueness and heighten it by offering assorted inducements. New air hose will hold to counter this through proactive selling scheme and efficaciously constructing its ain trade name image to develop its ain loyal pool of clients.


The officeholders such as BA, Iberia, easy Jet, Ryanair etc have much more experient human resources who have been trained and so provided with good chances to larn the direction of air hose operations over many old ages clip. Besides they have really good established procedures based on industry best patterns and they have evolved their ain direction manners and civilizations over the old ages they have been runing. The resources these administrations posses in footings of their superior work force, cognition and other resources provide them a distinguishable resource based advantage over the new entrant. Besides they have custodies on experience of the path every bit good and understand all spots and pieces about the seasonal fluctuations and the purchasing wonts of the clients. The new entrant will hold to undertake this through better and much in-depth market research, engaging the best ( and experienced ) personal and adhering to the industry’s best patterns ( Gilbert et al. , 2001 ) .

Retaliation from Incumbents

The officeholders may use assorted techniques to maintain the new air hose out of competition or to do its market portion undistinguished. For illustration they may seek to ‘price-out’ the new entrant by offering price reductions and other inducements particularly through their established web of spouses. The new air hose must therefore construct an image that presents it non merely as cost effectual but besides to offer quality service. The officeholders may step up their selling attempts to maintain their market portion, nevertheless the new entrant must concentrate on supplying its clients better experience of winging with them and develop its repute as a safe and comfy service suppliers.


We assume for the intent of this assignment that the new air hose has already studied the relevant Torahs and ordinances in item at concern proposal development phase and adheres to the ordinances in topographic point for the air hose industry. No peculiar Torahs are expected to impact the London-Barcelona path specifically and the air power in both states is governed by the European Torahs which are applied across board in all European Union. Therefore there is no high entry to barrier from the legal side to the new entrant.

Section C: Mentality for Passengers on the Path

It is argued in the literature that, a regulated industry is inefficient, as it tends to protect incumbent bearer, restrict competition and impede market entry. Traditionally the regulated mechanisms besides limited pricing freedom and merchandise distinction, restricted capacity growing and excepting new entrants ( Doganis, 1991, pp 47 ) . The ordinances limited the scope and pick of service quality and air hose ; they protected high-cost inefficient air hoses and resulted in higher menus ; they excluded new lower cost bearers ; and they limited international services to a few gate3way metropoliss merely ( Dogains, 1994 ) .

It is argued that with deregulating, it would ensue in a more competitory environment. In bend, it would be good to the consumers as they enjoy lower duties and a wider scope of services and merchandise. Smaller and more efficient air hoses could dispute those inefficient and big air hoses, which has long been protected in the regulated environment. In the instance of new entrant on the London-Barcelona path, it is apparent that the 2.3 million travelers will hold more pick as a consequence, and the officeholders would be under force per unit area to offer more inducements to confront this new menace to their market portion. Following effects can be expected as a consequence:

New bearer and expanded capacity:There will be increase in the sum scheduled capacity as a consequence of new entrant may assist catalyze farther growing in the market.

Downward force per unit area on duties and outputs:The new bearer come ining the markets by and large has a strong inducement to undersell the established air hoses in order to capture an appropriate market portion. This in return, puts force per unit area for air hoses to cut their menus in order to better compete with the new entrant. Therefore, the output for air hoses besides decreased consequently.

Higher Load Factors:The end point lower menus due to new entry into the market, there is a dramatic impact on rider demand on the intended path. There is an addition in rider burden factors as a consequence of new participants come ining the market.

Ultimately the client will profit by holding more pick, reduced menus, more flexibleness ( due to added capacity ) and competition in quality of service every bit good.


The analysis shows that there is huge growing potency on the London-Barcelona path. The market is expected to turn at 15 % and hence there is room for another entrant to derive ample market portion. Some of the future events such as the London Olympic in 2012 and the on-going tendency of British vacation shapers sing Spanish seashore side particularly in summer is promoting to prolong the hereafter growing in the market. Besides the VFR market is quickly turning while concern links between Barcelona and London are ever a sustainable watercourse of gross.

On the other side the new entrant may confront hostile reaction from the officeholders and may be drawn into a monetary value war where it may be vulnerable due to its deficiency of experience, resources and deficiency of economic systems of graduated table. Despite these jobs nevertheless, new entrant can successfully place itself by enrolling experient staff, proactive selling and supplying better service cost efficaciously. The clients have finally to derive from this new entry into the market due to increased pick, reduced menus, added flexibleness and improved quality of service.


Dogains, S. ( 1991 )Flying Off Course: The Economics of International Airlines, 2neodymiumEdition, Harper Collins, London.

Doganis, S. ( 1994 )The Impact of Liberalisation on European Airline Strategies and Operations, Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp: 15-25.

CAA ( 2008 )Statisticss, Civil Aviation Authority, United Kingdom,

Aviation Strategy ( 2006 ) . Europe’s low-priced bearers – where will it all terminal?Aviation Strategy, February, pp. 1-5.

Barrett, S. ( 2004 ) . Peripheral market entry, merchandise distinction, supplier rents and sustainability in the deregulated European air power market – a instance survey,Journalof Air Transport Management, Vol. 10 ( 2004 ) , pp. 21-30.

Barrett, S. ( 2003 ) . Airport competition in the deregulated European air power market,Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 9 ( 2003 ) , pp. 13-27.

Gilbert, D. , Child, D. & A ; Bennett, M. ( 2001 ) . A qualitative survey of the current patterns of ‘no-frills’ air hoses runing in the UK,Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 302-315.

CAA ( 2006 )No-frills Carriers: A Revolution or Evolution, Civil Aviation Authority, United Kingdom

World Markets Research Centre ( WMRC ) . ( 2007 ) .State Analysis and Forecast Country Report: Spain, 16 July 2008.

World Markets Research Centre ( WMRC ) . ( 2007a ) .State Analysis and Forecast Country Report: United Kingdom, 16 July 2008.

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