1. Definition of Job Analysis Job analysis is the systematic method of jobs to identify work activities, tasks, and responsibilities, KSAs, working conditions to perform the job. 2. Purpose of job analysis Purposes of job analysis are to identify: • Job description & specification • Recruitment and Selection: • Job evaluation • Job design • Compensation: • Performance Appraisal: • Training: • Compliance with labour law 3. Job analysis process Process of job analysis includes 8 steps as follows: Step 1: identify purpose of job analysis • Step 2: selecting the analysts • Step 3: selecting the appropriate method • Step 4: train the analysts • Step 5: preparation of job analysis • Step 6: collecting data • Step 7: review and verify data • Step 8: develop a job description and job specification 4. Job analysis methods • Methods of observation includes direct observation; work methods analysis, including time and motion study and micro-motion analysis; and the critical incident technique. Interviews methods includes structured interviews; unstructured interviews; open-ended questionnaires • Methods of questionnaire include Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ); Functional job analysis; Work Profiling System (WPS); MOSAIC; Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ); Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS). • Task Analysis Inventory • Job element method • Diary method • Competency profiling • Examining Manuals/reference materials • Technical conference • Combination of methods etc • Checklists and rating scales Why is job analysis important?
Directly outcomes / results of job analysis are job description and job specification. Apart from job description and job specification, Functions / benefits of job analysis include elements as below. 1. Purpose of job analysis in Recruitment and Selection: Job analysis is very important for contents as: • Job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions; • Appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate; • Minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants; • Interview questions; Selection tests/instruments (e. g. , written tests; oral tests; job simulations); • Applicant appraisal/evaluation forms; • Orientation materials for applicants/new hires 2. Purpose of job analysis in Job evaluation • Judges relative worth of jobs in an organization • Sets fair compensation rates 3. Purpose of job analysis in Job design • Reduce personnel costs, streamline work processes, • Increase productivity and employee empowerment, • Enhance job satisfaction and provide greater scheduling flexibility for the employee. • Simplify job with too many disparate activities Identifies what must be performed, how it will be performed, where it is to be performed and who will perform it. 4. Purpose of job analysis in Compensation and Benefits: Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine: • Skill levels • Compensation job factors • Work environment (e. g. , hazards; attention; physical effort) • Responsibilities (e. g. , fiscal; supervisory) • Required level of education (indirectly related to salary level 5. Importance of job analysis in Performance Appraisal: Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop: • Goals and objectives Performance standards • Length of probationary periods • Duties to be evaluated • Evaluation criteria 6. Importance of job analysis in Training and development: Job Analysis can be used in training needs assessment to identify or develop: • Training content • Assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training • Equipment to be used in delivering the training • Methods of training (i. e. , small group, computer-based, video, classroom…) 7. Job analysis increases productivity How a job analysis increases productivity? Job analysis also identify performance criteria so that it promote worker for best performance. • Job analysis can use methods of time and motion study or micro-motion analysis in order to time and motion for job. 8. Importance of job analysis in Compliance with labor law: • Identify requirements in compliance with labor law. • Compliance with Civil Rights Legislation in US. • EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) compliance in US 2. Work methods analysis Work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as factory or assembly-line jobs.
Work methods analysis includes time and motion study and micro-motion analysis. 3. Critical incident technique (CIT model). Critical incident technique is a method of job analysis used to identify work behaviors that classify in good and poor performance. 4. INTERVIEW METHOD Interview method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask questions to both incumbents and supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. Interview includes structured Interviews, unstructured interview, and open-ended questions. QUESTIONNAIRE METHODS Questionnaire method includes 6 techniques as follows: . Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ model) PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It developed by McCormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), is a structured instrument of job analysis to measure job characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that describe generic human work behaviors. 6. Functional job analysis (FJA model) FJA model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor.
It includes 7 scales (numbers) that measure: 3 worker-function scales: measure % of time spent with: data, people, things; 1 worker-instruction scale; 3 scales that measure reasoning, mathematics, language. 7. Work Profiling System (WPS model) WPS model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis, is a computer-administered system for job analysis, developed by Saville & Holdsworth, Ltd. 8. MOSAIC model MOSAIC model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis used to collect information from incumbents and supervisors.
It contains 151 job tasks rated in terms of importance for effective job performance and 22 competencies rated in terms of importance, and needed proficiency at entry. 9. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ model) CMQ model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by Harvey as a “worker-oriented” job analysis instrument designed to have applicability to a broad range of exempt and nonexempt jobs. It includes 41 general questions of background section, 62 questions of contacts with people, 80 items of decision making, 53 items of physical and mechanical activities, 47 items of work setting. 0. Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS model) FJAS model is is a technique of job analysis that describes jobs from the point of view of the necessary capacities. It includes 52 cognitive, physical, psycho-motor, and sensory ability, each of the categories consists of two parts – an operational and differential definition and a grading scale. OTHER METHODS 11. Task Inventory A task inventory is a list of the discrete activities that make up a specific job in a specific organization. 12. Job element method This method is same the critical incident technique.
It focuses on work behaviors and the results of this behavior rather than more abstract characteristics. Job element method developed by Ernest Primoff. 13. Diary method This method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask worker maintaining and keeping daily records or list of activities they are doing on every day… 14. Checklists and rating scales Checklist is job analysis method base on an inventory of job elements. You can ask question about purose of position; key responsibility areas; organization; relationships; decision making; authority; Skills, knowledge, experience; working conditions 15.
Competency profiling Competency modeling is the activity of determining the specific competencies that are characteristic of high performance and success in a given job. Contents of competency modeling include skills, knowledge, abilities, values, interests, personalities. 16. Examining Manuals/reference materials Manuals/reference materials such as quality manual, human resource manual, procedures, instruction, forms, job description…are useful for analyst in job analysis. These documents are available for organizations applied to ISO 9000 standard. 7. Technical conference Technical conference is a useful tool of job analysis base on Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). SMEs conduct brainstorming sessions to identify job elements. SMEs can use all job analysis methods in here. 18. Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model) Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model) is a method of job analysis, was developed in 1970 by Felix Lopez. Threshold traits analysis system include a standard set of 33 traits: ability traits are “can do” factors and attitudinal traits are “willing to do” factors.
Combination of methods In process of job analysis, analyst can use and associate all methods to collecting job information. For example, when you use direct observation, then you always do interview method. Job analysis sample/example: It includes 6 types of question based on methods as follows: 1. Sample questions of critical incident technique It is a job analysis form that include factors: • Context Questions • Behavior question 2. Job analysis interview questions sample/example It is a job analysis form that include factors: • Job purpose: Job duties • Job criteria / results • Records and Reports • Supervisor • Authority • Working instruments • Health and safety • Working conditions • Responsibilities • Knowledge • Skills/ Experience • Abilities required 3. Job analysis interview questions for management positionssample/example It is a job analysis form that include factors: • Management by functions • Management by activities 4. Position analysis questionnairesample/example It is a job analysis form that include includes 195 items of job elements includes six categories.
These questions are designed base on Position Analysis Questionnaire model (PAQ model). 5. Functional job analysis questionssample/example This sample include questions designed base on FJA method. 6. Job Analysis Questionnaires sample/example It is a job analysis form that include factors: • Physical demands. • Mental requirements. • Education: • Working experience • Problem solving • Decision making • Management responsibilities. • Contacts • Job complexity • Work environment • Skills and/or licensing/certification required • Employee info • Key tasks and responsibilities: