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Using shapes, lines, colors, patterns, and different aspects of geometry optical illusions create images that fool the human eye. Optical illusions occur when our brain is trying to interpret what we see and make sense of the world around us. Optic al illusions simply trick our brains into seeing things which may or may not be real. There are 3 main different types of optical illusions: literal, physiological, and cognitive.

Sci entists elieve optical illusions are possible because our brains are so good at recogn IZlng patterns and “seeing” familiar objects. Our brains work quickly to make a ‘Wh ole” image from separate pieces. Optical illusions were not introduced by anyone man b ut by several like Epicharmus, Protagorus, Aristotle, Johannes Mueller, and J. ] Opple These men, psychologists and philosophers, introduced the optical illusion id ea to the world which became popular in the public eye. The history of the optical illusion dates back to the 5th century B.

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C. in which Epicharmus explained that “even if our mind knows and understands everythi ng clearly, the sensory organs deceive us and present an optical illusion,” while Protagor us stated that it was the environment that befuddles the human, not the senses. Aristot I e agreed with Protagorus’ theory to an extent but believed it was possible to “fool the s enses quite easily. ” But it was Plato who claimed that to decipher an optical illusion with the senses and mind in unison. 1 9th century England Johannes Mueller and J.

J Op spent time researching optical illusions and with their extensive information t ey wrote articles and books that increased the popularity of optical illusions. Literal optical illusions, such as the magnetic hill, devise appearances differen from the objects that create the illusions. Physiological optical illusions, a bit more complicated, is the shape, position, and color that merge together to fabricate the illusion. An example of the physiological illusion is the Hermann grid illusion.

Cognitive optical illusions, like the Necker Cube, occur when the brains make calculated assumptions based on the information from the environment sent to the eye s and brain n that distinctive order; cognitive illusions are divided into four groups of illus ions: ambiguous, distorting paradox, and fictional. Ambiguous illusions are image s that present two representations so that each is correct in the eyes of the viewer. Distorting illusions distort images’ size and shape.

Paradoxical illusions are images that generated by objects that seem improbable, impossible or synonymous to a paradox. Fic tional illusions, also known as hallucinations, are perception of images to only one vi ewer. Geometric illusions are a clear representation Of when human brains try to fi d some order out of “ambiguous images. ” “Our visual system is capable of perfo rming complex processing of information received from the eyes in order to extract meaningful perceptions,” which can lead to incorrect comprehension of the image.

Are the lines crooked or straight? Do the adjacent lines slide past each other? Donald Hoffman, professor Of Cognitive Science at the university Of California utilizes mathematical aspects to explain how the brain takes two dimensional objects on a page and create a dimensional object. His two rules are “always interpret a s traight ine in an image as a straight line in three dimensions,” and “if the tips oftwo I Ines coincide in an image, then always interpret them as coinciding in three dimen sions. These explained ideologies force the brain to construct objects that are 2D to be AD. Optical Illusions are also prominent in everyday life. They are used in art, mag tricks and even animals using camouflage to stay hidden from their predator. The right combination of colors, shapes, spatial relations and other stimuli viewed by th e eyes and reported to the brain during relays of information can achieve the effect Of an optical illusion.

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