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Society has systemically studied children born and raised by single parents verses children parented by and living with both parents. Furthermore, single parents are scrutinized from the birthday of children until the child reaches adulthood. The interest is whether a single parent can properly raise a child to be a productive citizen without the influence and guidance Of both two parents – mother and father.

The concern, rather real or not is if the single mother is receiving the proper medical care, if is she the expectant mother drink alcohol or doing other drugs that would be harmful to the health of the inborn child smokes, and/or does drugs during the pregnancy which is considered harmful to the health and wellbeing of the child.

Then After after the birth of the child, the probe continues by using a societal yardstick to compare the child’s birth weight with the social norm of how much a child should weigh, when to determine whether the children should are walking, talking and eating the approved and age appropriate foods at the approved stage. However This the instrument measurement tool does not take into account the cultural and ethnic differences and norms of the individual families.

The perpetual ruler gauges whether children of a certain age stages they should accomplish certain task such as talking and walking when they shoulders accomplishment should occur in in accordance with to professional p psychologist handbook on child development. Other Studies studies including, Psychologists Betty Hart and Todd R Riesel have father shown “The the way and how often parents talk to kids children has have a significant effect on the child’s I. Q child’s I. Q. And as babies “boys talk less and later than girls talk”. S indicated by Child Psychologists Betty Hart and Todd R Rise (Hart &Risley 1993). Most Parents parents imagined successful futures for their children and believed in everything they do goes toward making their children successful. Parent sending children to what is considered “good” schools, provide proper medical care, nutritionally balanced meals, and there are parents working two jobs and attend school themselves to set an positive examples of success for their families.

Nonetheless, state, local, and federal government policies as well as local school policies and procedures prevented opportunities for children of color and those with disabilities to get nonrecurring the path to success mostly all because because of single parent family status or label . According to the United States Department of Education, ” black students make up 16 percent of public-school students, however, they also represent 27 percent of students who are referred to law enforcement by schools administrators and 31 percent of students who are arrested for an offense committed at school” (Education, 2014).

All parents want the best for their children, but it appears the likelihood of raising a child as a single parent create certain different dynamics that have a major implications on the rearing and behavior of children. The disparate impact levied on single parents makes it sometimes impossible to make it work for their families. The Annie E. Casey F-inundation commissioned a study that illustrates growing up in poverty contributes directly to stress at a level that can affect children’s health, brain development, and social and emotional well-being (The Annie E.

Casey Foundation, 2014). Is it just the the perception that that children living in single parents homes are living in poverty and have significantly different opportunities than others?. According of the Anderson writer for the Washington Times,state, , “Today, one-third of American children – a total of 15 million – are being raised without a father; also, nearly five million more children live without a mother. (Andersen, 2013) The home environment is could also be an indicator of the behavior of an adolescents. Marvelously, Mammon M. K.

Mammon contributing researcher for the The Journal of Negro Education and the author of of the The Journal on Youth and Adolescents, discussed that certain parenting practices, monitoring and problem-solving strategies also lead to to certain anti-social behaviors Mammon, 005 Peggy (Earn, Fall 2013). This implementers study will examine the issue “chi the question; Are children living in single parent homes are more prone to significant behavior problems than those living in dual are two parent households or familiarities of surviving with the fittest?.

In society general public, the surveillance’s for of children born to a single parents begins at with birth and ends with whether are not they reach adulthood; however, a traditional family success is measured by what college the children will attend. Dual parent family families – mother and father are ore apt to raise children socially proficient and a single parent have a tendency to raise children that may exhibit anti-social behaviors that may include the perpetrator’s of school shootings, drug users, juvenile delinquent and even, killing murdering their parents. After being denied a request. Consequently a result, very specific labels are placed on children raised by one parent or raised in a single parent homes: low income, living poverty homeless mall-nourished, behavioral problems, and a having disabilities which interns add different perceptions including, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and anger issues, etc. Subsequently, the issues with children raised by a single parent (growing up in a single parent family) is a reflection Of the parenting style and substitutability Of the parent to raise a child independently. R is this occurrence based on societal influences which causes the sigma placed on both the parent and the childbeds they are not recognized as a traditional family. Can the prevailing issues be the result of significant behavior issues unchallenged by the parent or are the parents to tough on the child creating delinquency behaviorist’s? It can could be all and tenor some because of leaving poverty, schools teaching test and not focusing on how children learn, parents’ not addressing children’s behaviors, money for community programs and the absentee fatherland.

Therefore, every element of the above mentioned facts are could contributors e to the raising of a children/child. Defining the Problem’s According to the U. S. Census Report, December 2011 there are 13. 7 million single parents in the United States today, and they are responsible for raising 22 million children. Furthermore, these numbers represents about 26% of hillier under 21 in the United . States. Today. Additionally, approximately 82. 2% of the custodial parents are mothers and about 17. 8% are single fathers. Furthermore, the single mothers, 57. 2% are raising one child from the absent parent and 44. % have two or more children living with them. Therefore, the inaccessibility of the absent parent in the household, especially if the child is a boy will exhibit violent behavior (s) when an authority figure is present. The issue is ‘Children raised by single parents exhibit violent behavior that may result in delinquency issues. This dysfunctional behavior ay further exhibit inappropriate behaviors toward Boys are more prone to violent behaviors in the presence of a a person with authority or perceived authority other than the custodial parent or guardian.

Research questioning. Children raised by single parents exhibit violent behavior that may result in delinquency issues. Boys living in single parents’ households more apt to be suspended from school, or incarcerated in prison or other residential institutions because of anger issues that may reach the level of violence and/ or abuse? Assumptions 1 . Boys living with mothers as the single parent home exhibit dysfunctional behaviors 2. Boys subjected to cohabitation single mothers’ exhibit angry behaviors’ 3.

Boys living below the poverty line are more apt to exhibit anger or violent behaviors Need for the Research The goal of this research study is to show examine that the relationship of that children raise with single parents programmed to exhibit violent behavior resulting in delinquency problems. In addition, boys of a color (black and brown) are more apt to be judged based on their behaviors than on their skills and accomplishments. Currently, there are a plethora of research documenting children living in single parent homes subsequently end up in he juvenile system.

Further suggestion include the children are suspended, expelled from school, or imprisoned as an adult. Susann Almagest, CBS writer conducted an interview after Tania Stevens a single parent lost her 16- year-old son when he was shot and killed by an off-duty police officer. She said she wanted her son “to go the straight rout?’, but he had been in trouble with the law for years, so she does not blame the officer for shooting her child. Tanya Stevens son, Detonate Dwight Mackey died after he held an off- duty Cook County Sheriffs sergeant at gunpoint while the officer was mumping gas at a Citing station.

During the interview , on the South Side. ‘To the correctional officer, I don’t have no hate in my heart, for what he did,” Stevens sedimentation. “Her son was out doing a criminal act’. ” “l am not one of those parents. I am not. Everybody knows me. I’m not one of those parents. Promote fairness,” she added. (Almagest, S. , CBS). Stevens sashays further mentioned that her son had many mentors in his life, including Carols Estes. Estes was getting Mackey into an alternative school after the teen was expelled, allowing him to have a lot of time on the streets.

But mentors are hardly the answer to these children already in the system. “Had a lot to do with peer pressure and wanting to be a part of and belonging to a group of individuals,” said Estes. “Its just sad that the peer pressure is winning the streets,” said Stevens. As for the two young men who were with her son and ran from the scene, Stevens says, if they don’t want to follow the same path her son did, they need to turn their lives around, and turn themselves in. The above situation is a popularization concern of single parents almost everywhere.

Delimitation The limitations of this research includes the use of limited primary data. the The availability of a sufficient number of single parents willing to continue participate participating in the researched. Several participants declined a second interview after completing the survey. Another limitation includes the majority of the secondary research dealt mostly with race and ethnicity identification; even though the mention of race is included in this study; however, it is not the primary focus, it is not the primary focus of this research subject..

The primary focus includes the influence the single parent may have on the child that may facilitate anti-social behavior which result in delinquency issues. Whether than parental influences which hampered the data gathering. Finally, the data collected was a small sampling and because of the sensitivity of the questions, respondents’ honesty is a perceived limitation. Section II Review of the Literature As stated previously there is a plethora of research accomplished by the U.

S. Census Bureau identifying those classifications of people living in the United States, specifically Single Parent Statistics. There is also research and studies discussing the single parents’ plight on the accomplishments or lack thereof of their children. In addition, other studies have been accomplished on “High Blood Pressure in Black Men Linked to Single Parent Childhood Households” and boys having less of a vocabulary than girl because of lack of interaction.

The institutional studies of black and brown children living with a single parent has been a research topic since the beginning of time; time that has encompassed from slavery, the Civil Rights Act Of 1 866 thru the Civil rights Act of 1 964, and the juvenile justice and prison systems that incarcerates boys as adults. The school systems policies on suspending or expelling black and brown boys from school due to behavior that appears that appear more laterally based than mischievous intent which highlights is because of the cultural differences between teachers and students.

Significant institutional studies have also revealed the school -? to – prison pipeline is active and well in the forefront of state and local legislature’s agenda. According to “The Rise of America’s Prison Empire” by Robert Parkinson, “one out of every 31 lives are under the control of the U. S. Criminal justice system and 60% of them are from single parent homes and traditionally underrepresented groups, such as Blacks and Latino” Furthermore, The Journal of Negro Education states, “Assessing the

Differential Impact of Contextual Factors on School Suspension for Black and White Students”, Discussing the comprehensive list of factors simultaneously. The U. S. Board of Education survey explores children behavior resulting in overwhelming suspension rates Section Ill Methodology Performing the Research This section represents a review Of the methodology used in gathering data regarding boys living in single parents’ households are more apt to be incarcerated in state or local institutions because of anger issues that may result in violence and/or abuse.

The method of secondary research includes broad literature review, and primary research conducted by using a ;level- question survey. Primary research Primary data collection for this research uses a twelve-question survey created and administered directly to the respondents. The survey will address the participants’ view of how she (survey focus on mothers as parents) addresses behavior displayed by her child or children, boys specifically.

The review of research and the research collected was to support the factors that infill nuance the process that have implications the rough policies and procedures designed for single parents with child/children (boys) at risk. Secondary Research Secondary research consisted of review of journals, special reports, policy reports, and articles pertaining to the research problem. Multiple sources were used to collect secondary research including web search, scholarly journals, and published book chapters.

The focus of the research is to gather existing information pertaining to how adolescent boys living in single parent homes display behavior that may be seen as violent or abusive. It also revealed where a child grows up greatly influences his life perspective. Nearly every source recognizes the major indicators of economic, social, and physical ell-being shows black and brown boys in the Lignite States disproportionably lack access to the structural assets and opportunities needed to thrive.

A research further illustrates countless ways in which boys Of color are consistently and systemically marginalia by public agencies such as child welfare, juvenile justice, education, and health care. As discussed, the review of the literature and research evaluated and used to support the objective of the behavior of adolescent boys living in single parent homes is seen as violent and prone to incarceration than boys living in dual parent homes. Participants A selected number of twenty people were provided the qualitative questionnaire to complete and consent to a personal interview.

The survey instrument addressed the views of parenting skills, how participants addressed inappropriate behavior at home and in public. The participates are single parents, cohabitation parent, even though they are in a relationship; the partner does not discipline the children, therefore consider themselves a single parent also those becoming single parents at the birth of their child. Twenty questionnaires were distributed expecting 100% return rate; however, five participants declined the interview and turned the questionnaire due to personal reasons.

The respondent’s child/ children ages ranged from 10-16. Two respondents were cohabitation parents one with a male and the other with a female partner. Instrumentation The qualitative instrument is used in order to evaluate personal behaviors of the interviewee as well as to avoid yes or no answers without having the opportunity to ask clarifying questions. Moreover, the qualitative instrument allows for personal interviews and for the respondents to liberate answer questions that may allow further conversations that may be pertinent to the search and maintain confidentially if requested by the respondents.

Data collection The questionnaire was provided to the volunteers prior to the scheduled interview which allowed the interviewees to opt out if they felt uncomfortable answering the questions. Those consenting to the interview were scheduled at the most convenient time for them and the researcher. The interviews lasted 15-20 minutes per interviewee and two interviews were conducted telepathically. The results of the interviews are displayed in graph format for visual representation and narrative account using the exact words of the interviewee.

Analysis The results of the questionnaire were collected and each response was recorded either on a graph or on verbatim comments as stated by the interviewee. In addition, the first four questions were group together based on the relevancy of the questions and the responses. Analysis of Results In this section, the primary data focused on a questionnaire asking the respondents number of children living in the house; the children’s ages as well as describe their parenting style. Participants were also requested to identify their parental status, I. E. Ingle, traditional, or non-traditional. The exults were reflected as visual graph that provides a pictorial viewpoint. So displayed is the parental classification, parental styles and their boys ages. The seven interview questions provided the opportunity to clarify responses provided interviewees. If endings The assessment included the classification Of the parent, how they see themselves; either as a single parent, dual parents, or a single parent with a significant other (cohabitate). (Figure 1) Figure 1: Displays responses based on how the parents see themselves as parents I. E. OTOH parents living in the home, single parents and single parent with a partner. Figure 1: Displays responses based on how the parents see themselves as parents I. E. Both parents living in the home, single parents and single parent with a partner. Six of the respondents were in a relationship with a live-in partner. The partner has no responsibilities for child rearing I. E. Disciplinary responsibilities, for the child at all. It was apparent as we discussed this issue caused tension and some dissension between the couples. All parents with boys responded that disciplinary issues were solely their responsibility.

The single parents considered disciplining their children was their responsibility. However, the responsibility to correct children was the duty of both parents in a dual household the discipline according to the respondents. As indicated by the questionnaire, we interviewed five single parents, three women made up dual parent families. The final category included single parents with live-in male companions. These relationships appeared very protective of the child/ children as to who has the responsibility of the child/children.

Moreover, single parents appear very protective of their child and just as proud and carry the same expectations for success as do dual families. We further identified the ages and sex of the children which included ages ranging from six years (2), ten years (1) and twelve years old (4) (Figure 2). Figure 2 Intensifies the adds of the children as identified by the parents participating in the study Figure 2: The ages are important for the researcher study to determine at what age the boys start begin to exhibit behavior comprehensible.

The researcher also wanted to determine at what specific age the model begin to show changes in behavior. Those results are not displayed however, after further discussion with the parents the changes SSH o happened it between gees 1 1 and 12. When discussing parental styles, single parents, cohabitation consider themselves strict parents as well as a good parent. They held their boys to certain standards of responsibilities, respectfulness for authority figures and held them high standard of accountability.

However, those identified as a single parent without a living partner considered themselves an easygoing parent, wanting the child to like them. Majority of the parents appear to want to be their best friend and protector (Figure 3). According to those interviewed parenting styles are reflective of whatever the situation is resented. As identified by the interviewees they may take on all four styles; when the school calls with a concern and the parent is not available because of their circumstances they take on the “Strict” parent demeanor (54%).

In order to address behaviors parents restrict activities, punish (no computer) for misbehaving and some parent use corporal punishment as a method. The “involved” parents (13%) stated they participates in all activities and want to know who friends are and where the child is when not at home. This parent is also included in on discussions of school issues, sports, and any issues or concerns affecting their child whether in school or out. On the other, hand the ‘easy going” parent is considered a quasi-friend. Figure 3. The interviews revealed that single parents cross the spectrum of parenting disciplining.

According to the parents, consider themselves as easy going (13%) said they take that persona only the stay connected with their children. “It is not that do not punish my kid, just want him to talk to me about anything that is bothering him”. When classified as a “good” parent (20%) the discussion was around all three classifications the friend, strictness and involved parent. All parents stated they discipline their children and stand-up for them as well. They are against chastising their children in public unless it is really outrages behavior.

When asked what is consider outrages they said cursing and talking back. As the respondents became more comfortable during the sessions, they revealed privileged information about behavior concerns. Stating boys fight, argue and wrestling around all the time (Figure 4). One single parent stated her son definitely had behavior issues as indicated by his interaction with those in authority. However, most interviewees stated they o not see significant behavior issues other than little petty stuff that kids do when they do not agree with punishment.

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