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In doing so, they wouldn’t end up politically and economically imbalanced. In order to avoi d the over centralization of the people of the newly unified China, they allowed some loc al people and religious establishments much power. 2. What institutions did the Tang use to govern their empires? The Tang used the institution Of bureaucracy and the institution Of the schol ar gentry examinations. In utilising the scholar gentry examinations, they allowed for an educated class to exist, as well as truly qualified people to enter the world of politics.

The schola r gentry were the well educated officials that governed the vast empire. The institution of burea ucracy allowed for a sense of unity to establish with the newly unified China. 3. Identify NeoConfucianism; how did it influence Chinese culture and the sta NeoConfucianism was the new rising interpretation of Confucian thought, c aused by Zhu Ji (1130 1200 CE). NeoConfucianism stressed the importance of applying Confu Cian theory to everyday life. In doing so, it invoked the creation and application of ethics in C hinese thoughts, s well as achieving a high education and great wisdom.

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The Chinese culture began to 100k with favour upon those who had received much knowledge and appeared wise. Th e Chinese state also looked with favour upon those who had received much education. Therefore, they reestablished the scholar gentry class examinations. The Chinese culture and state then pla ced emphasis upon rank, obligation, and traditional rituals. They sought out to reinforce class, age and gender distinction and the patriarchal system. This is all because Confucian thought e forced the division between age, class, and gender. 4.

Describe the Chinese commercial revolution. The Tang took control of central Asia and reopened the silk route between C hina and Persia as a part of the Chinese commercial revolution. The Tang also intensified interna tional contacts and merchant shipping increased. Due to the fact that improvement of technology in ship making had occurred, import and exporting of Chinese products had increased. The Song built on the advances of the Tang. The Song improved mathematics by creating the use of fractions and measurement. They also had lunar observations which led to precise calenda r. 5.

How did the Chinese expand agricultural production? The Tang and Song rulers pushed agricultural expansion southward. The Pe asants were encouraged to migrate to new areas so that they could possibly own and culti vate the newly acquired land. The state provided military protection and irrigation which pro vided an incentive for the people to cultivate land. Canals were created and moved to produce c onnections throughout the empire. New crops and technology increased yields. The Tang and Song created olicies to disband aristocratic estates to distribute land among free peasants 6.

How did gender relations change during the TangSong era? Gender relations changed in the way that women gained somewhat of a sta tus in the Tang and early Song due to Buddhist infusion. The women of the upper class had incre ased opportunities for inward expression, such as through painting or poetry,. The women of the upper class also had career possibilities under the Tang and early Song dynasty. However, in t he later Song dynasty, the status of women declined, due to the influence of Neoconfucian hought. 7.

Describe Chinese intellectual accomplishments during this period. The Chinese intellectual accomplishments during this period were in the area s of science, technology, literature and fine arts. In engineering, they made Grand Canal, di kes, dams, bridges, and irrigation systems. The Song military advances were: explosive powder, n aphtha flame throwers, poisonous gas, and rocket launchers. The domestic inventions were : chairs, tea drinking and coal for fuel kites. A few more of their inventions included: com passes, abacus and the printing press.

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