Therefore they would like to show their appreciation to the following people. The researchers would like to express their deep gratitude to Miss Ruth Anne Santos, their research adviser, for her patient guidance, enthusiastic encouragement and useful critiques of the research work. Mr. Dexter palanas, their physics teacher, for showing the solution in tensile strength. Finally, the researchers wish to thank their parents for their support and encouragement throughout the study. Abstract This research is conducted develop a paper out of Taro stalks and Squash xocarp.
Also to know if there is any significant difference between the Taro stalks and Squash exocarp and commercialized paper in terms of its Tensile strength and its smoothness. The study deals with hypotheses. The alternative hypothesis states that There is a significant difference between Taro stalks and Squash exocarp and commercialized paper in terms of its Tensile strength and its smoothness and the Null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference between Taro stalks and Squash exocarp and commercialized paper in terms of its Tensile strength and its smoothness.
The researchers gathered the materials generally such as Taro stalks, Squash exocarp, water, vinegar and scrap papers. Some laboratory equipments are also needed like weighing scale, basin and weights. The taro stalks and squash exocarp will be air dried for several days and will be mixed with water, vinegar and scrap papers. In a blender, thew mixture will be processed until there’s no more large residue left and will be wringed with a cheese cloth and will lastly be air dried for four days. The researchers tested the Tensile strength of the resulting paper and will be compared with the commercialized aper.
After getting the Tensile strength and evaluating the smooth ness of the two different papers, the researchers used T-test to determine if there is any significant difference between the two papers in terns Of its smoothness and Tensile strength. The results, which was 2. 45 indicates that the Alternative hypothesis is accepted and therefore the Null hypothesis is rejected. To the other researchers who were interested to continue this study, the researchers recommend to search for other methods or techniques to improve the smoothness of the paper. They could also vary the mount of water or the scrap papers used to see better results.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp together derived from wood, rags and grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. Much of the early paper made from wood pulp contained significant amounts of alum, a variety of aluminum sulfate salts that is significantly acidic . Papers have been widely used in different industries. Papers are very important for documents, for students, in architecture, for packaging, for posters and ads and many more Jhe esearchers know these importance of paper so they decided to find another organic material that can be used instead of wood pulps.
Taro (Colocasia Esculenta) is the oldest cultivated crop in the world, having been in parts of tropical and subtropical Asia for more than 10,000 years . lts’ leaves are smooth and lustrous . Taro leaves and stalks are both edible thaVs why it is commonly used as medicine in different native dishes. Taro is also used as medicine in India. The taro’s stalks are built with proteins and carbohydrates . 1n some places, taro stalks were being used as clothing fibers. Fiber is one of the components of paper that is important to bind the particles of paper together.
The more fibrous part of Taro is its stalks or stems. Having known that, the researchers use Taro stalks as paper. Squash (Cucurbita Maxima) or “Kalabasa” are very abundant in the Philippines and widely used for food additives and one of the most common vegetables that is used in different Filipino dishes. Squash’s meat is rich in protein and Vitamin A . The other parts of Squash is also useful like its flower and its exocarps. Squash exocarps are hard and shiny . lt is not edible and is ommonly thrown away. It is also used as briquettes.
In some countries, squash exocarps are being processed to become card boards. Statement of the Problem The aim of this study is to develop a paper out of Taro stalks and squash exocarps. The researcher would like to know if there is any significant difference between the commercialized paper and the Taro stalks and Squash exocarps paper in terms of its Tensile strength and its smoothness. The study will be dealing with two hypotheses. The Null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference between the commercialized paper and the Taro stalks and Squash exocarps paper.
The Alternative hypothesis states that there is a significant difference between the commercialized paper and the Taro stalks and Squash exocarps paper. Significance of the Study The study will be beneficial to the community for it could also lessen the use of Trees because it doesn’t use wood pulps as its main component. And also to teachers and students whose the main consumer of paper. The study will be dealing with developing Taro stalks and Squash exocarps as paper only. The study will only use one kind of Taro and squash and their rigin will be strictly just from one place.
The other components of the paper such as the vinegar and water used are kept constant. Definition of Terms Review Of Related Literature Handmade paper from banana peelings According to a research study by Eusebio (2013) , using paper from banana peelings was one of the best ways citizens can contribute to conserving our environment. Eusebio blended chopped dried banana peels and water for the mixture. The ratio was 1:4 respectively. The mixture was then spreaded into a silk screen with a uniform depth of Imm and was dried for 24 hours.
The esults supported the hypothesis as the handmade paper works out like ordinary paper based on ink absorbtion test and smoothness test. The color of the paper was light brown. Eusebio suspects it due to banana peelings and said that the color will depend on the raw products to be use. This study can be used as a reference as to how to conduct the experiment for this study. It also gives an insight on how raw materials can make paper. Source: Handmade Banana Paper Best type of leaves that can produce handmade paper Banana leaves, Papaya leaves and Petchay leaves are the leaves used by the esearchers.
The researchers cut each kind of leaf and placed them into individual cauldrons. The cauldrons were added with 500ml water and were left to boil. After boiling, each cauldron was added with one teaspoon of caustic soda and was stirred constantly until it boils again where it is placed again with one more teaspoon of caustic soda. They drained the water then chopped it into small pieces by a blender. After blendering the mixtures the researchers bleached it with some commercial bleach. The bleached mixture was then placed in a mold and was left to dry.
The results all differ in color and particle fiber size. The researchers generalized that all leaves can make handmade paper and they recommended other researchers to try other leaves. The study can be a basis that leaves can be made into handmade paper. Source: Which leaves are best to produce natural hand-made paper Methodology Source of Materials The taro stalks and squash exocarp were gathered from Purok II , Majada out Mayapa,Calamba City, Laguna. The commercialized paper was bought in National Bookstore, Crossing Calamba City, Laguna.
The measuring materials nd other laboratory equipments were from the laboratories of Calamba City Science Highschool, Chipeco Avenue, argy. 3, Calamba City, Laguna. Research Design Time series experimental design was used as the research design. There were three set-ups used with the different proportions of the ingredients for the paper making to determine which proportion would show better results. Set- up A with 24g of taro stalks and 1 lg of squash exocarp , Set up B with llgof taro stalks and 24g of squash exocarp and Set up B with 15g of taro stalks and 1 5g of squash exocarp and were all compared to each other’s resulting aper.
The other variables such as the water , vinegar and scrap paper used were kept constant in the experimentation. Paper Making The dried taro stalks and squash exocarp were sliced into smaller pieces. The raw materials were measured using a weighing scale. The ingredients were mixed with 100 ml of water, 50 ml of vinegar and 15 gof scrap papers and poured in a blender. After a while, the mixture will be processed inside the blender until theres no large residue left. Using a cheese cloth, the mixture was wringed. The mixture was settled in a flat plate and was air dried for four days.
Data Gathering Process The different set-ups were compared by testing its tensile strength. The data were collected by using the formula of Force over the Area of the paper. The taro stalks and squash exocarp paper was compared to the commercialized paper in terms of smoothness through a scale that shows an order of smoothness corresponding a certain value. The data were collected and tabulated. Statistical Analysis Paired T-test was used to know if there is any significant difference between the Taro stalks and Squash exocarp paper and commercialized paper in terms of its tensile strength and smoothness.
Smoothness Scale and Tensile strength Test There were two different test that were used to evaluate the Taro stalks and Squash exocarp Paper and the Commercialized Paper which are the Tensile strength test and and the Smoothness scale. These two were applied to show which paper has a better quality. Tensile strength is used to determine how binded a flat surface is. Upon conducting this test which was calculated by the formula Force over Area, the researchers used weights as its Tensile stress and measure which Tensile stress would tear the Taro and Squash paper and also the other paper.
The smoothness scale was used to measure the smoothness of the paper on a basis. This scale included five different types of paper with different smoothness. These papers were arranged in an order; 1 being the highest and 5 being the lowest. The researchers compared each paper to the scale and tabulated the data collected. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results were interpreted after the data were collected and after getting the ratio of the ingredients upon having three set-ups. Table 4. 1 Three Set- ups of the Taro stalks and Squash exocarp showing the ratio of the ingredients. Set- Up
Amount of Taro stalks Amount of Squash exocarp 24g 1 lg lig c 15g Table 4. 1 shows the proportion of the ingredients in the three set-ups used by the researchers in the papermaking. The researchers used different set- ups to determine which proportion would have a better resulting paper that were compared to the commercialized paper. Table 4. 2 The Tensile strength of each resulting paper of the three set-ups. Set-Up Properties of the paper Tensile Strength Dirty white in color, Smooth and firm 4. 5 kN/m Brownish in color, Rough 4. 0 kN/r-n Grayish in color, Smooth 3. 4 ktwr-n Table 4. hows the Tensile strength of each resulting paper of the Three set- ups and also includes the properties of the paper. Tensile strength was measured through the formula of Force over the Area of the paper. Having different proportions of the ingredients, the researchers garnered the best results in Set-up A. Table 4. 3 The results of the smoothness and tensile strength of the Taro stalks paper and Squash Exocarp paper and the Commercialized Paper Paper Description Smoothness (Value) Taro stalks and Squash exocarp Paper Grayish in color, subtle 3 Commercialized Paper Light Brown in color, compact 2 3. wm Table 4. 3 shows the results of the smoothness and Tensile strength of the Taro stalks and squash exocarp Paper and commercialized paper. The results shows that the Taro stalks and Squash exocarp has a higher tensile strength than the commercialized paper. The researchers evaluate the two different papers using the scale or standards that they created. The results shows that the Commercialized paper has a value of 2 while the Taro stalks and Squash exocarp paper has a value of 3 which indicate that the Commercialized paper is smoother than the other paper which was out of Taro stalks and squash xocarp.
Table 4. 4 T-test Result Of the Taro stalks and Squash exocarp and commercialized paper. Mean Variance Taro stalks and Squash exocarp 4. 5 0. 22 2. 45 Table 4. 4 shows the result of the T-test of the Taro stalks and squash exocarp paper and commercialized paper. using the 0. 05 as the critical value and having the result of T which is 2. 45, the researchers accepted the Alternative hypotheses that states that there is a significant difference between the Taro stalks and squash exocarp and commercialized paper in terms of its Tensile strength and smoothness.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation Su m mary This research aims to develop a paper out of Taro stalks and Squash exocarp. There are two hypothesis in the study; the first one was the Taro stalks and squash exocarp paper would have a better results than the commercialized paper and that there is a significant difference between the two in terms of its Tensile strength and smoothness and the other one is that there is no significant difference between the two after surpassing the two test applied.
Related studies noted in this research that paper is a flat sheet material that uses wood pulps as its main component. Other than that, fiber is one of the paper’s important materials to be binded well. Upon reviewing this, the researchers decided to use Taro as a feasible component of the paper. The researchers figured out that the most fibrous part of the Taro was its stalks or stems. The researchers also reviewed a journal that deals with making cardboards out of Squash exocarp and decided to use Squash exocarp as another component of the paper.
After the materials were obtained, the researchers used a simple technique in papermaking which includes the three steps; Mixing flattening and drying. Even though there were three ifferent set-ups used in the research, the whole process were kept constant in each paper made since the study would only be limiting in developing a paper out of Taro stalks and Squash exocarp only and not in the different techniques in paper making.
The researchers observed that having greater amount of Taro stalks than squash exocarp are more effective in terms of smoothness but the squash exocarp in the mixture also helped in the Tensile strength of the paper. Conclusion upon having the Tensile strength test, the results show that The Taro stalks and Squash exocarp paper has a higher Tensile strength than the ommercialized paper. The Taro stalks and Squash exocarp and the commercialized paper were compared and the evaluation of their smoothness indicates that the Commercialized paper is smoother than the Taro stalks and Squash Exocarp paper.
The T-test results which was 2. 45 indicates that the Alternative Hypothesis should be accepted therefore there is a significant difference between the Taro stalks and Squash exocarp and Commercialized paper in terms of its Tensile strength and smoothness. Recommendation The results show that the Taro stalks and Squash exocarp has a higher tensile trength than the commercialized paper but in terms of smoothness, the commercialized paper has better results than the Taro and Squash Paper.
To the other students that would be interested to continue or develop the same study as this, the researchers recommend them to research for other methods or techniques to improve the smoothness of the paper. They could also vary the amount of water or the scrap papers used to see better results. References Appendices The researchers preparing the ingredients for the paper. Drying of the chopped taro stalk and squash exocarp. Placing the set-ups a steel tray for air drying.