We try to demo the links and crossing overs may be between engineering transportation and the production system of the host state and hence its fight and grade of integrating into the planetary economic system. We will seek to verify the theoretical hypothesis that an appropriate engineering transportation will assist to cut down the technological spread between developed and emerging through the upgrading of production systems and bettering productiveness.
I.1 Definition of engineering transportation:
The term “ engineering transportation ” is used to expose the procedures by which engineering is exchanged between organisations or between states. However, it should be noted that the constructs of engineering and technique interact which is frequently confounding in their reading ( R & A; eacute; mi Barr & A; eacute;, Pierre Papon1993 ). However, an initial account for this quandary was given by Edwin Mansfield ( 1968 ) that the technique is a method used in the production procedure while engineering is the manner in which the company manages the cognition related to art Industrial.
We begin with the etymology of this word compound which, harmonizing to Larousse, engineering transportation is a “ measure, for developed states to export engineering and expertness in states undergoing industrialisation. ”
We can specify engineering transportation as“ the procedure denominating the formal transportation to industry of finds ensuing from research or private university in order to market them as new merchandises and / or services. ”
The most common definition is that given by Harvey Brooks“ Tests in which scientific discipline and engineering are diffused through human activity as perpendicular and horizontal constituents ”
Seurat ( 1979 ) states that“ there is engineering transportation when a group of work forces, normally portion of an organisation, efficaciously becomes capable of taking in a satisfactory status, one or more maps related to a peculiar technique ”
This transportation may take the signifier of belongings, cognition, securities, trade goods… It should be noted that whatever the nature of the transportation, it includes indispensable four elements: content, two histrions, one consequence.
The contents of a engineering transportation can be a set of physical assets ( machinery… ) or intangible ( cognition, accomplishments ) and willing to develop a engineering. The two histrions are the issuer with the cognition of this engineering and wish to reassign and receiver wishing to suppress this ability. About the result, ordering the success of the transportation, it is approached from the receiving system ‘s ability to to the full command all the content elements.
In this logic, Drouvot and Duran ( 1978 ) embrace the thought that“ Technology transportation is to non sell to a state the agencies to fabricate a stuff that after conveying him how to utilize it, market it, to profit “
Technology transportation occurs in two horizontally and vertically
I.2.1 The horizontal transportation
It occurs via the version of engineering from one application to another. In other words, it is the act of reassigning a engineering from one runing environment to another. It is hence a alteration in way of an established engineering. This type of transportation is normally subsidiary in instance engineering is transferred from industrialized to developing states.
I.2.2 The perpendicular transportation
It relates to engineering transportation along a line from general to specific. He refers to the transmittal engineering of generalisation in the research and development in the field of scientific discipline and engineering initiated by specialised organisations ( universities, public and private research labs… ) ( 2002 D.BENNET )
I.3 definitions of the integrating procedure
Integration is a construct whose beginning comes from assorted subjects, political scientific discipline and economic sciences largely. This is explained by the many readings and analyzes that she led on the one manus and the other by the different utilizations to which it has been. It is this usage of the construct of multidisciplinary integrating makes its definition hard and different from one book to another.
If we start by uncluttering the etymological sense, the Concise Oxford Dictionarydefines it as “ Action to include person or something; made to suit; operation which consists of piecing the assorted parts of a system and to guarantee compatibility and proper operation of the complete system. Economic integrating: set of procedures by which two or more provinces are making a common economic space. “
For the Larousse Pocket,“ Integration is conveying in a set in a larger group, assimilate ”.
Both definitions refer to the constructs of amalgamation integrating, fusion and assimilation.
Harmonizing to the Economic and Social Encyclopedic Dictionary,“ Economic integrating expresses a fusion of antecedently separate economic systems, harmonizing to certain stages or by some procedure. ”Here we find the impression of fusion between the economic systems subsequent to the operation of integrating.
We distinguish this definition of the features of abolishment and riddance of favoritism within an country.
Furthermore, Tinbergencalled negative integrating which, based on trade liberalisation, allows the remotion of prejudiced action and taking barriers to the motion of goods, and by extension factors. Positive integrating implies an institutional motion that sees the replacing of certain instruments or bing establishments and making new 1s.
By roll uping these definitions, it is clear that integrating is a first measure in cut downing deformations of national policies and a motion of national boundary lines, traveling towards the international market, and a 2nd clip by concerted agreements between the States members in other countries economic, cultural and societal.
I.3.1 Footings and signifiers of integrating
Current experiences of economic integrating occur at two degrees: market integrating and integrating of production.
A. In- market integrating
The intent of this type of integrating is to accomplish the creative activity of a individual market following the amalgamation of member states ‘ markets after the remotion of barriers of all sorts on the free motion of goods, but each state retains its autonomy Sum in the field of production taking to increased competition to win this big market.
Such an experience can be more or less extended, B.Balassa are five grades of integrating.
The free trade country
This is an understanding based on reciprocality of the remotion of duty and nontariff barriers on goods traded between member states while keeping its ain external duty policy.
This signifier of integrating requires the constitution of regulations of beginning specifying the country of production of imported merchandises so that imports can entree the member states where rates are low.
The imposts brotherhood
This is a free trade country which includes some countries of trade policy of member provinces and hence implies the acceptance by the latter, the same system of imposts limitations vis- & A; agrave; -vis other states. This protectionist step is an agreement of “ 2nd best ” compared to the theoretical optimum. The imposts brotherhood with free motion of goods within the infinite of integrating should take to a reallocation of resources and an equalisation of factor monetary values.
The common market
In add-on to the characteristics of the imposts brotherhood, common market liberalisation understanding extends to production factors, capital and labour. The circulation of these factors should enable increased efficiency by chairing the comparative scarcenesss of member states and besides an addition in intra-regional trade.
The individual market
Includes the harmonisation of criterions and ordinances.
The economic and pecuniary brotherhood
All member states satisfy their economic policies including financial, pecuniary, financial, exchange, beside trade policies and in-migration policies and out-migration of labour. The concluding phase of regional integrating can take to the acceptance of a individual currency.
B-. integrating of production
This is the consequence of relationships in the internationalisation of multinational houses. It is provided by the pudding stones deploying their schemes in a given regional country.
It leads to a systematic division of labour in member states. Each state specializes in a peculiar industry or harmonizing to criterions of economic computations as a better fiscal return, either because the states have agreed to them.
In such a type, is automatically incorporate production as an mercantile establishment markets of member states, which do non demo up in competition, which amounts to a entire freedom of motion of goods. The integrating of production can non be at a certain degree of market integrating. Merely here, the integrating more or less advanced markets is non justified in itself but merely because it is the footing for the integrating of production. This is besides why many market integrating can remain here partial stage of free trade is sufficient to guarantee the integrating of production.
I.3.2 Theoretical part of the integrating
A-Theories of International Trade:theoretical accounts Viner and Meade
Under this attack, the integrating promotes the allotment of productive resources, and hence alterations in the constructions by subdivision of production and specialisation in international states. However, the disadvantage of these classical theories is that they stipulate that economic integrating is possible between states at similar nest eggs. Therefore this theoretical model, although it evokes the impression of comparative advantage, non merely is fixing to analyse the research job that is portion of technologically different states.
B-theories of economic geographics
Under the philosophy of economic geographics is characterized by the integrating of agglomeration effects and polarisation. On the one manus, there is decreased distances and the function of geographical propinquity to the technological revolution and the importance of exchange immat & A; eacute; rielset other manus, there is input from builders districts effects of agglomeration outwardnesss knowledge ( P.Hugon 2000 ).
In add-on, Richard Baldwin and Philippe Martin ( 2004 ) highlight the estimate and the mutuality of endogenous growing theoretical accounts and theoretical accounts of New Economic Geography. Indeed, the first expression at how “ economic activities emerge through technological invention ” and the latter concerned with standards by which these economic activities are located in geographic infinite and the why of their spacial concentration. A differentiation is so the centripetal forces that lead to concentration of activities, and the centrifugal forces that lead to the scattering. ( Krugman 1990 ).
The footing of this springs new theory are more comparative advantages, but agglomeration economic systems ( among others produced by the accretion in the same part of a big sum of clients or providers ).
Today the benefits of which may hold a district are now linked, either to the being of natural resources, but the command of cognition and engineerings, the being of a specific human capital. We talk about it to constellate.
II-Technology transportation and impact on production system: Theoretical background
II-1 The standard theoretical theoretical accounts
This is the neoclassical theory, which through the production map, has established a direct correlativity between engineering and production procedures. Harmonizing to standard theory, the engineering is an exogenic factor in the production procedure. The traditional attack to engineering and technological alteration emphasizes that the engineering is to the full contained and incorporated as crystallized in machinery and equipment, or the terminal point of technological alteration without mention to the procedure that leads to. Innovation is the brief device acceptance and inundation of new engineerings which are adapted productive constructions without sing the acquisition procedure.
II-1-1 theoretical account Joseph Shumpeter
Work shumpeter ( 1942 ), saying that invention is the engine of development have the virtue of being the foundations of an economic theory elucidates the function of technological alteration in the growing of the economic system. This invention theory is based on the construct of “ enterpriser ” of Shumpeter represented by a individual ( or group of individuals ) whose determinations lead to the debut of new merchandises, procedures and systems or opening new markets or new beginnings of supply. One of the chief characteristics of this theory is that advanced entrepreneurship is instead the consequence of an look of will as an act of pretermiting the rational beginning of scientific and proficient thoughts eventual site by incorporating new merchandises and procedures. In representing the mechanism of technological alteration as additive “ Invention? Innovation? airing ” Shumpeter emphasizes economic concluding instead than on the development of engineering and more accent on the most extremist inventions compared to innovation and diffusion.
By concentrating on major inventions Shumpeter failed to stipulate that technological alteration is the consequence of an on-going research and gradual accretion of cognition which little innovations are frequently more of import than the finds of the most radical. He even found that additions in productiveness to the diffusion of new engineerings do non originate straight from the first great innovation but a long procedure of acquisition, development, extension and version for the new merchandise or procedure.
II-1-2 The exogenic growing theoretical account Solow ( 1957 )
Inspired by neo-classical, this theoretical account is based on a production map of two factors: labour and capital. Production therefore consequences entirely from the scene in combination with a certain sum of capital ( physical capital ) and labour ( labour ).
The Solow theoretical account is based on the premise that factors of production are sing decreasing returns, that is to state that increasing them in a certain proportion consequences in an addition in a lower proportion of production. It besides raises the hypothesis that inputs are used expeditiously by all states. By presuming that the population has a growing rate that Solow describes as “ natural ” ( non influenced by the economic system ), the theoretical account derived three anticipations:
- Increase the sum of capital ( that is to state puting ) increases growing: with more capital, labour additions its productiveness ( alleged apparent ).
- Poor states have a higher growing rate than rich states. Indeed, they have accumulated less capital, and hence cognize more decrepit decreasing outputs, that is to state that any addition in capital leads to an increased production proportionately greater than in rich states.
- Because of decreasing returns of factors of production, economic systems will make a point where any addition in factors of production will take to more increased production per caput. This point corresponds to the steady province. Solow notes nevertheless that this 3rd anticipation is unrealistic: in fact, economic systems ne’er reach this phase, due to the proficient advancement that increases the productiveness of factors.
Decidedly, the virtue of Solow is that of holding built a 3rd factor in the production procedure, proficient advancement. Therefore, the long-run growing comes from technological advancement. However, this technological advancement is exogenic to the theoretical account, that is to state, it does non explicate it but sees it as given ( as a “ windfall ” ).
II-1-3 theoretical account of Kenneth Arrow ( 1962 )
Kenneth Arrow has proposed a theoretical model for analysing invention that there are two types of houses:
- Firms bring forthing inventions, aimed at the creative activity of new cognition
- Manufacturers of consumer goods, which may utilize the inventions as an input.
The theoretical account premises are:
- An invention is assumed to be a public good.
- It isnon-rival– The usage of the belongings by an agent does non forestall it being used at the same time by another
- It isnon sole– The belongings proprietor can non do net incomes out by giving its user fees.
- An invention is assumed to be a public good.
- Economic agents are assumed to be empowered to absorb invention without any attempt.
- Invention is supposed to be consistent without loss of quality. It can be recreated at any clip.
- The pioneer is “ stray ” and its end is to maximise net income.
Arrow ‘s concluding high spots the belongingss of uncertainness, non-rivalry and indivisibility distinguishing production and usage of new scientific cognition. Note that the non-rivalry implies that the component of cognition does non interrupt in usage and is hence useable countless times. It is hence non appropriated and will distribute the exclusive cost of duplicate. Indivisibility, in bend, implies that it is absurd to bring forth an component of consciousness several times.
II- 2 The Theory of Growth E ndog & A; egrave; Nes:
The endogenous growing theory is a outstanding part to the 1980 Economic Science. This is a answer to Solow theoretical account. It was developed chiefly by Paul Romer and Robert E.Lucas.
Harmonizing to this theory, public policy can impact the growing rate in the long term the economic system. The proficient advancement is reinstated in the bosom of growing, it is no longer a “ residuary ”. It is endogenous because it depends on the behaviour of economic agents and public action: the economic system ‘s productiveness can be improved by increasing the stock of cognition, public substructure and human capital ( instruction and preparation of workers ). This theory has been criticized for non conveying more consequences than the traditional Solow theoretical account ( growing model exogenic ).
II-2-1 theoretical account of Paul Romer ( 1986.1990 )
For Romer, cognition is non integrated persons. It ‘s engineering, ie a set of instructions for edifice equipment. Knowledge is synonymous with invention, it is the merchandise of research and development ( R & A; D ). This is a nonrival usage partly sole
Harmonizing to Romer, technological cognition is a good used by everyone, so that each extra unit of human capital allocated to research non merely increases the degree but besides the growing rate of technological production. In this domain, the production is sing increasing returns factor, since all finds of all clip profit to all research workers and increase their productiveness: there are so positive outwardness in the research activity. Indeed, by giving more human capital to research, more goods are new and more developed scope of capital goods is more broad productiveness of an applied scientist working in research is high. The applied scientist who now works in the research sector has the same human capital as that practiced a century ago ( human capital is measured in footings of classs ) but it is more productive because it benefits of the cognition accumulated over the last hundred old ages.
Research activity induces positive outwardnesss: an invention increases the productiveness of all research workers to come as its market monetary value does non include this “ net income ”. The being of positive outwardnesss is linked to the procedure of cognition airing. The bosom of the theoretical account is good in the allotment of human capital between invention activity and production on the one manus, and the allotment of returns between ingestion and investing on the other. Innovation determines the growing rate of the merchandise while the physical capital works on its degree. Growth will be even stronger than the human capital allocated to the research sector is of import.
The accretion of cognition is the engine of economic growing and giving a big portion of its human capital in research will be given to turn faster than another.
II-2-2 theoretical account of Lucas ( 1988 )
As portion of the optical Romer, Lucas ( 1988 ) emphasizes the presence of outwardnesss related to human capital accretion. It introduces an outwardness in the production map, but non in the engineering of cognition accretion, without supplying an account warranting the acceptance of this premise.
II-2-3-The theoretical account of Aghion and Howitt ( 1992 ) and the paradigm theoretical account of growing through originative devastation:
The basic thought of Aghion and Howitt says the long-run growing is the consequence of the accretion of cognition and non that of inputs. This accretion is reflected in footings of research to bring forth inventions in the signifier of refined merchandises. This theoretical account punctuates three factors that have been comparatively relaxed by economic experts. The first relates to the wrongness of the theoretical account of perfect competition when it comes to explicating the growing in portion through research. The 2nd relates to the obsolescence of old engineerings favored by technological advancement and the 3rd concerns the discontinuity of economic activity.
The combination of these factors, fixing the theoretical account of Aghion and Howitt ( 1992 ) to register in line with the thoughts of Schumpeter. Furthermore, it should transcribe the points that separate analysis of Aghion and Howitt that of Romer:
- They see, against this, a registry of intermediate goods, the extent would depend on invention. They admit that this scope has a fixed size and the invention procedure allows merely to regenerate the belongings within this scope by cut downing their cost as an input to the production map of concluding good
- The invention procedure is now random reverse to the premise of regularity of Romer. Inventions are separated by clip periods whose continuance is a random variable distributed harmonizing to a fish. The parametric quantities of this distribution varies with the sum of work dedicated to the research activity
- Inventions in sequence in the diagram “ of a row of overlapping tiles ”. Therefore, the monopolizers who have acquired the operating rights of an invention are confronting a negative outwardness because they no longer possess quasi rent at the oncoming of the following invention, exclusivity is granted to new monopolizer. It inherits the denier scope of intermediate goods renewed, while his predecessor did non complete to work the advantages of lasting anterior terminal.
Decidedly, Aghion and Howitt acknowledge the importance of improved inputs, and this from the position Shup & A; eacute; t & A; eacute; rienne of originative devastation. Technical advancement is defined, harmonizing to Aghion and Howitt, as an invention procedure in which old inventions are replaced by newer, unlike Romer, which for him, inventions accumulate.
New merchandises, new procedures and new markets are the consequence of a uninterrupted watercourse of invention. Some of these inventions are considered cardinal or extremist and other secondary or higher. Innovation activity comes chiefly from two activities: R § D and acquisition by making. If the first is the cardinal beginning of invention, and the 2nd allows the development of secondary inventions, both are united by a complementary relationship. Indeed, it is in productive activity that inventions developed by R & A; D can be tested and perchance improved.
Theories of endogenous growing based on engineering and mentioning to Shumpeter, represented as the hunt engine of sustained growing. They were designed to turn to issues associating to the efficient allotment of scarce resources, taking into history the importance of technological outwardnesss in footings of economic policies, they do non seek, nevertheless, to explicate the generation and operation.
Such a theoretical context therefore, non conformable to turn to the complex procedure of engineering transportation. It requires instead a model for systemic analysis which, without pretermiting the economic facet of this pure transportation, considers its institutional facet. This is the part of the evolutionary attack and n & A; eacute; otechnologique n & amp; eacute; oshumpet & A; eacute; rienne or, as we discuss in the undermentioned subdivisions severally.
II-3 The theoretical account of Posner and Vernon: Approach n & amp; eacute; otechnologique
The cardinal thought of this attack is to integrate the part of proficient advancement and invention in the analysis of international trade. This amounts to delegating a footmark to dynamic Ricardian and HOS theoretical accounts harmonizing to which the engineering is given and changeless, therefore the name of theory N & A; eacute; otechnologique which was granted. Therefore, this current redefined the impression of comparative advantage in so far as it is now apprehended in footings of engineering.
M.Posner ( International Trade and Technical Change, 1961 ) is the builder of this attack in the analysis preliminary by the observation of houses from different states who are engaged in uninterrupted invention. The finding of the most of import states is the development of invention with an advantage over other connoting a monopoly place in the international selling of merchandises ensuing from invention. Therefore, considerable trade flows per se justified by the technological spread between states. Countries export advanced goods so from their technological border where they enjoy a comparative advantage while other states cut down to the unmarked goods.
Deploying more this logical thinking, R.Vernon ( International Investment and International Trade in Product Cycle, 1966 ), focuses on issues at the beginning of the life rhythm of merchandises ( peculiarly sustainable merchandises ) at the Business Economics. He so generalized the analysis to international trade. The chief thought of this writer is cognizant that any one advanced merchandise life rhythm has four stages: launch, growing ( or diffusion ), impregnation and diminution. These stages are valid with the agreements for circulating both local and foreign market.
- The launch stage:The diffusion of the merchandise in the local market. It is characterized by high incomes and strong demand from merchandise invention which allows the house to profit from an advanced signifier of impermanent monopoly.
- The growing stage:Characterized by generalisation and trivialization of the merchandise on its place market forcing the innovating house to export the merchandise in other markets like making economic systems of graduated table.
- The stage of the impregnation:Arrival in footings of airing of good in the domestic market, and being imitated by other houses, the advanced house initiates engineering transportation and to accommodate its merchandise to sell in the markets of emerging states in technological degree different.
- The diminution stage:While the merchandise is bit by bit substituted by a more advanced: down ingestion and production is wholly moved in hunt of lower costs, competition is now focused on monetary value and non on the advanced nature of the belongings.
II-4 The evolutionary attack
Evolutionary attacks recognize the visual aspect of endogenous invention procedure, from the accretion and development of modus operandis and accomplishments. From this position, invention is seen as a flight, which is incorporated in merchandises, procedures and depends on the cognitive abilities and accomplishments developed in the organisation. But the development of houses are besides portion of the flights ( or programs ) technological countries on which they depend.
II-4-1 PATHS AND TECHNOLOGY TRACK OF THE Firm: CONTRIBUTIONS AND QUESTIONS
The evolutionist school, inspired by the work of Nelson and Winter ( 1982 ), has been dedicated to clarify the alterations impacting the one manus and industrial sectors, on the other manus, endeavors and invention mechanisms. Nelson and Winter reprimand economic theory “ Orthodox ” does non explicate the procedure taking to such company holding such a constellation of productive techniques, or analyzed the factors that could corner the alteration, nor the grounds for the differential entree of houses to all available techniques ( Lazaric Arena, 2003 ).
By concentrating on the survey of dynamic procedures taking to irreversible alterations in the economic system, geographic expeditions of evolutionists have targeted the explanatory variables of economic kineticss observed by integrating the accomplishments and regulations which are besides capable to changeless alteration and partially endogenous. This research has led to the outgrowth of more focussed work on the relationship between accomplishments, invention and public presentation, with the purpose to better understand the function of expertness in organisational kineticss and interactions between accomplishments and invention ( Nelson, 1987; Dosi et al., 1988; Teece, Pisano & A; Shuen, 1997 ).
The evolutionary attack allows to analyze, and the phenomena of assortment of organisations and mechanisms of choice ( Nelson and Winter, 1982 ).
A- Concept of technological flight
Nelson and Winter have studied the “ technological governments ” they besides mean “ natural flight ”. Technical developments, alterations in cognition and beliefs determine strategic chances unusually houses. This is particularly true for bungalow industries that have small weight on the major technological developments. It is hence substancial, understand, or better, to expect the impact of technological flights on trades. Photography such as printing, for illustration, with a big figure of bungalow industries are, presents, shaken by digital engineerings. Craft endeavors, non being able to order a “ dominant design ” ( standard eventually agreed upon ), must be acquainted with technological developments external likely to bring forth new development chances on the one manus, and demand advancement celeres accomplishments and expertness mobilized on the other manus..
With respect to the house, evolutionists province that the determinations taken by direction and the cognition held by employees can be adapted to altering market conditions or, against, be rejected. With each new rhythm of invention, concerns and others generate perish: it creates, therefore, a signifier of choice modus operandis by the market. The two rules internal modus operandis / choice by the market can plan the overall economic kineticss. We will concentrate on the house ‘s ability to introduce and scale to turn by concentrating on accomplishments, as the merchandise of larning related to the activity, the organisational context and alterations in the environment
Progressions of little concerns rely to a great extent on technological developments related to their profession but without needfully over-determination of the technological government of the invention flight of the house, technological developments may sometimes make niches or new market chances to work the accomplishments and know-how contained, typical trade endeavor. Technological flights contribute to the outgrowth of chances, but besides do it feasible niches “ of technological options, ” including in the trade. Some will distinguish themselves by supplying an alternate to the standardisation of a market.
To sum up, the flight of the house falls, as has already been stated in modus operandis and specific accomplishments, which will be exhibited in the undermentioned paragraph, and which underpin its competitory advantage.
B. Routines, accomplishments and invention flights of the house
This is Nelson and Winter ( 1982 ) deserves recognition for the construct of interfering modus operandis they define as “ the commissariats comparatively changeless and strategic heuristics that shape the attack of a house based on non-routine jobs it faces. “
This treatment of modus operandis caused some addition in the theoretical architecture of their work. Routines represent a finite and historically dated, although a stochastic procedure can take to polish over clip. It is now agreed that the acquisition of cognition exterior is conditioned by those who were raised previously, through a procedure of layering and memory.
In this position, Cohen and Levinthal ( 1990 ) mark the importance of absorbent capacity of the firmemphasizing the impossibleness of managing external cognition without understanding. Nonaka ( 1994 ) has, furthermore, stated that the mutuality between tacit and expressed cognition can bring forth four types of the transubstantiation of cognition that the house can deploy to heighten its invention potency.
Based on the construct of “ path dependance ” ( path dependence ), David ( 1985, 1988 ) argues that public presentation and the flights of houses are closely correlated to the uniqueness of their history and modus operandis accumulated. Therefore, the house is apprci & A; eacute; e through accomplishments or abilities accumulated throughout his life through acquisition procedures. Note, to fit, that invention besides means to stand out of modus operandis as they may interfere with new acquisition ( Mintzberg, 1995 ).
Routines in some respects is the corporate memory of the company, this is why a survey of them will break analyse the individualised facet, specific accomplishments required by the bungalow industry to introduce. Indeed, in so far as cognition antecedently acquired by the company find its soaking up capacity, accomplishments must be regarded as a “ flow control and non a stock to keep ” ( Alcouffe and Kammoun, 2000 ). It so becomes necessary to measure:
- how the company figniole his trade accomplishments, values and develops
- how to craft endeavor merges it can be purchased from the outside with its ain technological capital to finish its procedure of invention.
Using these accomplishments, which combine single and corporate facets, technological and organisational, it is easy to place the accomplishments and modus operandis to advance dynamic invention in the trade concern.
The work of the invention economic system were besides oriented to the survey skills to introduce by concentrating on both facets of the cumulative procedure of invention and development accomplishments ( larning signifier, capitalisation, updating cognition ) and synergistic facets ( web of histrions, action infinite, frequence of exchange ). These proposals are likely to bring forth treatment on the interaction of the traditional company with its environment. These interactions are at one time highly of import in the procedure of cognition development but besides in the procedure of geographic expedition ( March, 1991 ) new chances and new cognition.
II-4-2. EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION IN THE COMPANY AMBIDEXTROUS
The development and geographic expedition are the two chief classs that can apportion resources between different activities of a company. These constructs, developed by J. March ( 1991 ) in the context of organisational acquisition, have been replicated in other countries including merchandise invention ( Danneels, 2002; Mothe & A; Chanal, 2004, He & A; Wong, 2004 ). Harmonizing to J. March, “ the development of old certainties ” and “ researching new possibilities ” are two complementary attacks from which it is necessary to keep a balance. They lead to different behaviours and schemes but, in their different ways, influences the public presentation of the company.
Operating activities provide continuity and stableness of the company through the development of effectual modus operandis. These geographic expedition work on the placeholder of new cognition that will assist beef up the company ‘s productiveness and better fight and therefore beef up its capacity to accommodate to a altering environment.
. Firms authorized to at the same time unite development and geographic expedition are recognized under the name of organisations “ two-handed ” ( Tushman & A; O’Reilly, 1996 ). The analogy is valid for companies runing both in mature markets and emerging markets by deploying new merchandises and services. They by and large result in better public presentation than those that do non unite the two attacks.
In the instance of new merchandise development, E. Danneels ( 2002 ) place two cardinal accomplishments: those that permit the design and industry it ( engineering accomplishments ) and those used to sell it ( the accomplishments clients ). Harmonizing to the new merchandise development, the company may already hold these accomplishments, or should, alternatively, develop one, the other or both.
II-4-3 ‘s mutuality with economic invention
Based on the work of Schumpeter ( 1934 ), an invention could take one of five signifiers:
- The market debut of a new more modern merchandise of the bing one
- The appropriation of a new production technique
- The acceptance of a new organisational construction
- The find of new markets
- The usage of new inputs
Each of these signifiers of invention has the consequence of bettering the production construction and therefore beef uping the competitiveness factor of international integrating. In this position, invention is seen as an incorporating factor in the planetary market. Indeed, houses become more competitory and able to vie after following new production procedures, may be more likely to increase their market portion both locally and abroad.
It should be noted that the suitableness of evolutionary theories is even more increased that much of the ascertained differences in development between states can be explained in footings of differences in public presentation of their national invention systems ( 2002 ). They have the footing for a major cause distinguishable ability to absorb new engineerings transferred from advanced states.
Chapter 1 Summary
The intent of this chapter was to show the theoretical relationship between engineering transportation and restructuring of the production system in the host state. Such restructuring can ensue in productiveness betterments that strengthen the fight of the economic system and advance its integrating into the planetary market.
We called ab initio with the standard theories of international trade through the first work shumpeter ( 1942 ) by saying that invention is the engine of development have the virtue of being the foundations of an economic theory clarifying the function of technological alteration in the growing of the economic system. Then we traveled the Solow thoughts that incorporated proficient advancement, which comes from growing in the long term, as a 3rd factor in the production procedure, nevertheless, that technological advancement is exogenic to the theoretical account, that is to state it does non explicate it but sees it as given ( as a “ windfall ” ). Finally, the logical thinking of Arrow is portion of the same logic by foregrounding the belongingss of uncertainness, non-rivalry and indivisibility distinguishing production and usage of new scientific cognition.
We presented, in a 2nd measure, the endogenous growing theories whose chief part consists of the reintegration of proficient advancement in the bosom of growing, it is endogenous because it depends on the behaviour of economic agents and public actions: productiveness of the economic system can be improved by increasing the stock of cognition, public substructure and human capital ( instruction and preparation of workers ). They were designed to turn to issues associating to the efficient allotment of scarce resources, taking into history the importance of technological outwardnesss in footings of economic policies, they do non seek, nevertheless, to explicate the generation and operation.
Such a theoretical context therefore, non conformable to turn to the complex procedure of engineering transportation. It requires instead a model for systemic analysis which, without pretermiting the economic facet of this pure transportation, considers its institutional facet. This is the part of the evolutionary attack and n & A; eacute; otechnologique or N & A; eacute; oshumpet & A; eacute; rienne, we treated severally in the undermentioned subdivisions.
Therefore, the cardinal thought of this attack is to integrate the part of proficient advancement and invention in the analysis of international trade. This amounts to delegating a footmark to dynamic Ricardian and HOS theoretical accounts harmonizing to which the engineering is given and changeless, therefore the name of theory N & A; eacute; otechnologique which was granted. Therefore, this current redefined the impression of comparative advantage in so far as it is now apprehended in footings of engineering.
Evolutionary attacks recognize the visual aspect of endogenous invention procedure, from the accretion and development of modus operandis and accomplishments. From this position, invention is seen as a flight, which is incorporated in merchandises, procedures and depends on the cognitive abilities and accomplishments developed in the organisation. But the development of houses are besides portion of the flights ( or programs ) technological countries on which they depend