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Martin Luther did not agree with the papacy’s way and began to lead life on self deprivation, prayer and study. While Martin was in a monastery he wrote directly to Pope Leo to stop the abuse of the churches followers. This escalated quickly between Pope Leo and Martin Luther and caused the Protestant Reformation. Martin L ether burned the papal bull of condemnation, rejecting the pope’s authority. Martin Luther thought the only way to salvation was through the faith in Jesus Christ and no t through the pope. 2. ) In what ways was the Catholic Reformation a response to the Protestant Reformation.

Include a discussion of the Jesuits. The Catholic Reformation was greatly influenced by the Protestant Reef rumination for example, the Catholic Reformation was a counter reformation of the Proto Stan. The Catholic churches council would meet at the city of Trend for three sessions a ND would didst anguish their doctrines from protestant doctrines. A new society Of religious s orders was with the Jesuits or otherwise known as the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits we founded by a Spanish nobleman in 1450. The Jesuits helped with the stem of t he Protestant tide and tried to win back some adherents by their teachings and p reaching. . How did the people’s view of the universe change during the scientific revolution? Discuss some key scientists and innovations. People viewed the universe as being composed of TTY. Or elements; earth a ND water and the atmosphere was made up of two other elements: air and fire. They la term than believed that celestial objects were perfect spheres orbiting the Earth in prefer city circular objects. Copernicus introduced the theory of a heliocentric world, me angina that the universe was centered around the sun. Later based of Copernicus theory y the Danish astronomer, Itchy Brave, said that the universe was elliptical.

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Galileo Galilee built a telescope through which he took a closer look at the heavens which WA s able to magnify distant objects thirty times beyond the power of the naked eye. 4. ) What was the Enlightenment? In what ways was this a challenge to political systems in the middle ages? The Enlightenment was the belief that human reason could discover the e laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws that gave Rene physics. The Enlightenment period was similar to the Scientific Revolution beck cause it was created by so called “enlightened individuals”.

The Enlightenment was a c Allen to political systems; partisan bickering and bloodshed led to others to doubt t superiority of any theological position and to recommend toleration of all reel goons. There were also some accounts go cultures in other countries that were influenced by the European “Enlightenment” thinkers during the middle ages; Americans. Aimer cans lives were led to think that people who were called savages were in many ways no abler than European Christians. The Enlightenment was more a frame of mind than a m meaningful movement. 5. ) How did jingoistic companies change the way businesses and nations operated?

Jingoistic companies changed the way businesses and nations operated in a variety of ways. The Dutch were the originators of the jingoistic companies, t hey used them to give the Dutch East and West Indies companies monopolies over trade e. Soon after France and England began their own. The jingoistic companies sold shah rest to individuals to gain large sums for overseas enterprises while also spreading RI asks and profits. Investors could buy and sell trades in which was called stock exchange e. With the support from the English government foreign trade rose about 50 percent bet en 1660 and 1700.

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